Physicochemical characterization of human cardiovascular deposits
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Detailed crystal chemical characterization of human pathological cardiovascular deposits (PCD) was conducted applying wide set of the instrumental methods (XRD, FTIR, Raman, SEM, different chemical analyses). There was some progress achieved in the understanding of it formation mechanism. The obtained data evidence that pathological cardiovascular deposits are presented by non-stoichiometric water-bearing B-type carbonated hydroxyapatite just like other apatites of the human body. But PCD apatite is characterized by higher concentration of B-type carbonate ion (up to ~ 6 wt%) which leads to the increasing influence of the carbonate-ion on the unit cell parameters in comparison with water and other substitutes. Another difference between PCD apatite and other pathogenic apatites of the human body is the smaller variations of the unit cell parameters, caused by smaller variations of the blood chemical composition. It was shown that apatite on the surface of PCD is characterized by the more non-stoichiometric composition compared to apatite inside these deposits. It is assumed that the formation mechanisms of the PCD apatite and the bone apatite may be similar.
KeywordsCardiovascular apatite X-ray diffraction IR spectroscopy/Raman spectroscopy X-ray spectroscopy (XPS/EDX) Electron microscopy
The authors thank Dr. L.M. Lamanova for providing some samples of cardiovascular deposits. The instrumental investigations have been performed at the Research Resource Centers of St. Petersburg State University: Center for Geo-Environmental Research and Modelling (GEOMODEL), Chemical Analysis and Materials Research Center, Center for X-ray Diffraction Studies, Center for Physical Methods of Surface Investigation.
This work was partially supported by President of Russian Federation Grant for leading scientific schools (no. NSh-3079.2018.5).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.
The signed consents on taking PCD samples were obtained from either the patient or next of kin. All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments. The approval of the ethic committee of the S.M. Kirov Military Medical Academy for the study was obtained.
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