Short-term and long-term effects of osteoporosis on incisor teeth and femoral bones evaluated by Raman spectroscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis in ovariectomized rats
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There are few published data on the relationship between loss of bone mass due to osteoporosis and poor tooth quality. This study analyzed the effects of osteoporosis on incisor teeth and femoral bones using optical techniques in rats. Twenty female Wistar rats aged 6 months (n = 20) were randomized into two groups: control group, non-ovariectomized rats (n = 10); ovariectomy group, ovariectomized rats to induce osteoporosis (n = 10). Each group was subdivided randomly into two groups containing five rats each as follows. Control group 1: non-ovariectomized rats euthanized at the age of 9 or 3 months post-ovariectomy (n = 5); Control group 2: non-ovariectomized rats euthanized at the age of 1 year or 6 months post-ovariectomy (n = 5); ovariectomy group 1: ovariectomized rats euthanized at the age of 9 months or 3 months post-ovariectomy (n = 5); ovariectomy group 2: ovariectomized rats euthanized at the age of 1 year or 6 months post-ovariectomy (n = 5). The incisor teeth and femoral bones of Wistar rats were removed to perform Raman spectroscopy using an excitation laser at 785 nm. In addition, an energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer system was used to evaluate calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P). The main findings included significant changes (p < 0.05) for phosphate and carbonate band areas for both incisor teeth and femur bones. In addition, there was significant negative correlation between the P concentration and phosphate/carbonate ratio (lower P content–larger ratio, p < 0.05) for incisor teeth and femoral bones. The proline and CH2 wag band areas were significantly reduced only for the incisor teeth (p < 0.05). Therefore, Raman spectroscopy assessed the compositional, physicochemical and structural changes in hard tissue. The current study also pointed out the possible action mechanisms of these changes, bone fracture risk and dental fragility. It is important to emphasize that poor dental quality may also occur due to osteoporosis.
KeywordsRaman spectroscopy EDX Tooth Bone Osteoporosis
We would like to thank the São Paulo Research Foundation (FAPESP)—Grant no. 2013/14001-9 and 2013/07276-1 (CEPOF—CEPID Program).
This study was funded by the São Paulo Research Foundation (FAPESP)—Grant no. 2013/14001-9 and 2013/07276-1 (CEPOF—CEPID Program).
Compliance with ethical standards
This study was approved by the Ethics Committee of the São Carlos Institute of Physics (IFSC), University of São Paulo (USP) in São Carlos, Brazil (number 08/2014). All animal procedures were performed according to the principles in the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals.
Conflict of interest
No competing financial interests exist.
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