Journal of Bone and Mineral Metabolism

, Volume 37, Issue 1, pp 53–59 | Cite as

Muscle strength is associated with bone health independently of muscle mass in postmenopausal women: the Japanese population-based osteoporosis study

  • Takahiro Tachiki
  • Katsuyasu Kouda
  • Namiraa Dongmei
  • Junko Tamaki
  • Masayuki IkiEmail author
  • Jun Kitagawa
  • Naonobu Takahira
  • Yuho Sato
  • Etsuko Kajita
  • Yuki Fujita
  • Akiko Yura
  • Sadanobu Kagamimori
Original Article


There are conflicting reports on whether muscle strength is associated with bone mineral density (BMD) independently of muscle mass. Here, we examined the association between muscle strength and BMD in a representative population of Japanese women. Cross-sectional data from 680 postmenopausal women, who were participants in the 15th-year follow-up survey of the Japanese Population-based Osteoporosis cohort study, were analyzed. Areal BMD (aBMD) at the femoral neck and lumbar spine, whole-body bone mineral density, and appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM, kg) were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The ASM index (ASMI, kg/m2) was calculated as ASM divided by height squared (m2). Grip strength (kg) was measured as an indicator of muscle strength. Grip strength showed significantly (P < 0.05) positive relationships with aBMDs at several skeletal sites after adjusting for ASMI and age (standardized partial regression coefficient (β) = 0.102 at femoral neck, β = 0.126 at lumbar spine). Adjusted means of aBMD at the femoral neck and lumbar spine showed significant increasing trends from the lowest to highest tertile of grip strength. Our findings indicate that muscle strength is associated with aBMD at several sites independently of muscle mass in Japanese postmenopausal women. Thus, postmenopausal women with strong muscle strength tend to have a healthy bone status regardless of muscle size.


Body composition Epidemiology Musculoskeletal system 



The authors thank personnel at the health departments of Sanuki, Joetsu, Nishi-aizu, and Memuro for their excellent support, and Toyo Medic Co. (Osaka, Japan) and Toyukai Medical Corporation (Tokyo, Japan) for their technical assistance. This study represents a part of the research conducted by the Japanese Population-Based Osteoporosis study group (Chairman Hideo Yoneshima, MD, PhD, Shuwa General Hospital), comprising Fumiaki Marumo (former chairman, Professor Emeritus, Tokyo Medical and Dental University), Toshihisa Matsuzaki (former cochairman, Professor Emeritus, University of the Ryukyus), Yoshiko Kagawa (Kagawa Nutrition University), Takashi Akiba (Tokyo Women’s Medical University), Harumi Nishino (Toyama Pharmaceutical Association), Tomoharu Matsukura (Toyama Prefectural Government),Toshio Matsumoto (University of Tokushima Graduate School of Medical Sciences), and Takashi Yamagami (Hokuriku Health Service Association), in addition to the authors. This work was supported by Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research (KAKENHI Grant Nos. 23390180, 23590824, 23657176, and 23659362) from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors have no conflicts of interest to declare.


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Copyright information

© The Japanese Society for Bone and Mineral Research and Springer Japan KK, part of Springer Nature 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Takahiro Tachiki
    • 1
  • Katsuyasu Kouda
    • 1
  • Namiraa Dongmei
    • 2
  • Junko Tamaki
    • 3
  • Masayuki Iki
    • 1
    Email author
  • Jun Kitagawa
    • 4
  • Naonobu Takahira
    • 5
  • Yuho Sato
    • 6
  • Etsuko Kajita
    • 7
  • Yuki Fujita
    • 1
  • Akiko Yura
    • 1
  • Sadanobu Kagamimori
    • 8
  1. 1.Department of Public HealthKindai University Faculty of MedicineOsaka-SayamaJapan
  2. 2.Department of Orthopedic MedicineSecond Affiliated Hospital of Inner Mongolia Medical UniversityHohhotChina
  3. 3.Department of Hygiene and Public HealthOsaka Medical CollegeTakatsukiJapan
  4. 4.Center for Human and Social SciencesKitasato University College of Liberal Arts and SciencesSagamiharaJapan
  5. 5.Department of RehabilitationKitasato University School of Allied Health SciencesSagamiharaJapan
  6. 6.Department of Human LifeJin-ai UniversityEchizenJapan
  7. 7.Department of NursingNagoya University Graduate School of MedicineNagoyaJapan
  8. 8.University of ToyamaToyamaJapan

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