Cord serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D is not associated with cranial anthropometrics in infants up to 6 months of age. An Odense Child Cohort study
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Skull changes are poorly described in vitamin D insufficiency [serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (s-25(OH)D) 25–50 nmol/L]. We aimed to investigate factors associated with cranial anthropometrics in infants, especially s-25(OH)D. In infants 2.5–6 months old from the Odense Child Cohort, associations between cord and pregnancy s-25(OH)D and anterior fontanel area (n = 765), head circumference (HC, n = 1776) and head shape (n = 1527) were investigated along with other factors. Age was corrected for preterm birth. The mean (SD) s-25(OH)D in early pregnancy was 65.97 (21.33) nmol/L; late pregnancy 78.61 (27.18) nmol/L; and cord 47.1 (21.7) nmol/L. At median (IQR) age 3.7 (2.5–5.9) months, the fontanel area was 225 (0–1690) mm2, and mean (SD) HC was 41.5 (1.5) cm. Asymmetric/flat head shape was present in 846 infants (55.3%). No associations were found between cord, early or late pregnancy s-25(OH)D and any cranial measure by univariate or adjusted analysis. Among significant, independent associations in multivariate analysis, fontanel area was associated inversely with gestational age (GA); HC was associated directly with GA, maternal pre-pregnancy overweight and caesarean section and inversely with smoking; and asymmetrical head shape showed a novel association with male sex: adjusted OR = 1.54 (95% CI 1.25; 1.89), p < 0.001. Other associations with asymmetrical head shape included parity 3+, gestational age and maternal age 30+ years (all protective). In conclusion, neither pregnancy nor cord s-25(OH)D was associated with fontanel size, HC or asymmetrical head shape despite a high prevalence of cord s-25(OH)D < 50 nmol/L. Lower GA was associated with larger fontanel size, lower HC and asymmetrical head shape, and boys more frequently had asymmetrical head shape, probably due to heavier heads.
KeywordsVitamin D Anterior fontanel Head circumference Head shape Cord blood
We would like to express our gratitude to the staff and all families participating in Odense Child Cohort. We would also like to thank Jeanette Tinggaard for providing raw data for calculations of Z-scores from the newly published national growth charts . Finally, we would like to thank our collaborators at the Department of Clinical Biochemistry and Pharmacology at Odense University Hospital. The study was supported by a Grant from Odense University Hospital.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
All authors have no conflicts of interest.
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