A systematic review of cultural orientation and perinatal depression in Latina women: are acculturation, Marianismo, and religiosity risks or protective factors?
Latinas in the USA and Spanish-speaking countries experience elevated rates of perinatal depression (PND) because of high psychosocial stressors. Latinas are heterogeneous and have varying cultural practices. It is unclear whether specific cultural orientations have differential risks for PND. This systematic review aimed to determine whether degree of acculturation, Marianismo, and religiosity are risks or protective factors for PND in Latina women living in the USA, Latin America, and other countries. The review included PubMed, CINAHL, PsycINFO, PsycARTICLES, Academic Search Ultimate (EBSCO), and Social Services Abstracts, and used Boolean combined keywords. English and Spanish language articles were considered. The review was conducted between July 2017 and February 2018, with no boundaries on publication dates. Ten studies were selected for inclusion. Of those, two studies were conducted in Mexico and most studies conducted in the USA included women of Mexican descent. Degree of acculturation (adoption of mainstream values) was inconsistently directly associated with PND; evidence suggest indirect associations. Marianismo, the traditional female role of virtue, passivity, and priority of others over oneself, was inconsistently correlated with risk for depression in pregnancy, but significantly and indirectly associated with postpartum depression. Two of three studies found religiosity to be protective postpartum. Further research on protective and risk factors of specific cultural orientations, particularly degree of acculturation and Marianismo, for PND in Latinas in the USA and abroad is needed. Attention to specific perinatal periods is necessary given the inconsistent findings.
KeywordsLatina Acculturation Marianismo Religion Depression Perinatal
The authors wish to thank the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign for their support of this study.
Lara-Cinisomo conceptualized the study, reviewed the selected studies, and wrote the results, discussion, limitations, and summary. Lara-Cinisomo also outlined and reviewed the remaining sections of the manuscript. Wood conducted the literature search and drafted the introduction. Fujimoto also conducted the literature search and drafted the methods.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
This article does not contain any studies with human participants performed by any of the authors.
Informed consent was not necessary as human subjects were not involved in data collection.
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