Posttraumatic stress disorder and development of premenstrual syndrome in a longitudinal cohort of women
We examined the association between posttraumatic stress disorder (+PTSD) symptoms and incident premenstrual syndrome (PMS) in a longitudinal study with 14 years follow-up of 2924 women aged 27–44. Compared to women with no trauma exposure, women with trauma/PTSD were at significantly increased risk of PMS (p-trend < .001): 1) trauma/no PTSD odds ratio (OR) = 1.31 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.05–1.63], 2) 1–3 PTSD symptoms OR = 1.71 [95% CI = 1.33–2.20], 3) 4–5 PTSD symptoms OR = 2.90 [95% CI = 2.07–4.05], and 4) 6–7 PTSD symptoms OR = 3.42 [95% CI = 2.18–5.36].
KeywordsTrauma Posttraumatic disorder Premenstrual syndrome
Drs. Koenen and Roberts are supported by NIH grant R01MH10126. NIH grant UM1CA176726 supported for NHS II cohort infrastructure. Dr. Jung is supported by the Yerby Postdoctoral Fellowship. This study was supported by a faculty research grant of Yonsei University College of Medicine (6-2018-0096).
Role of the funder/sponsor
The funders had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, or interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; or decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Dr. Jung had full access to all of the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Study design and concept: Jung, Chocano, Koenen.
Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: Jung, Roberts, Koenen.
Drafting of the manuscript: Jung.
Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Jung, Roberts, Whitcomb, Missmer, Manson, Hankinson, Bertone-Johenson, Koenen.
Statistical analysis: Jung, Roberts.
Obtained funding: Koenen.
Administrative, technical, or material support: Jung.
Study supervision: Koenen.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest disclosures
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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