Posttraumatic stress disorder and development of premenstrual syndrome in a longitudinal cohort of women

  • Sun Jae JungEmail author
  • Andrea L. Roberts
  • Patricia Chocano-Bedoya
  • Brian W. Whitcomb
  • Stacey A. Missmer
  • JoAnn E. Manson
  • Susan E. Hankinson
  • Elizabeth R. Bertone-Johnson
  • Karestan C. Koenen
Short Communication


We examined the association between posttraumatic stress disorder (+PTSD) symptoms and incident premenstrual syndrome (PMS) in a longitudinal study with 14 years follow-up of 2924 women aged 27–44. Compared to women with no trauma exposure, women with trauma/PTSD were at significantly increased risk of PMS (p-trend < .001): 1) trauma/no PTSD odds ratio (OR) = 1.31 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.05–1.63], 2) 1–3 PTSD symptoms OR = 1.71 [95% CI = 1.33–2.20], 3) 4–5 PTSD symptoms OR = 2.90 [95% CI = 2.07–4.05], and 4) 6–7 PTSD symptoms OR = 3.42 [95% CI = 2.18–5.36].


Trauma Posttraumatic disorder Premenstrual syndrome 



Drs. Koenen and Roberts are supported by NIH grant R01MH10126. NIH grant UM1CA176726 supported for NHS II cohort infrastructure. Dr. Jung is supported by the Yerby Postdoctoral Fellowship. This study was supported by a faculty research grant of Yonsei University College of Medicine (6-2018-0096).

Role of the funder/sponsor

The funders had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, or interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; or decision to submit the manuscript for publication.

Author’s contributions

Dr. Jung had full access to all of the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.

Study design and concept: Jung, Chocano, Koenen.

Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: Jung, Roberts, Koenen.

Drafting of the manuscript: Jung.

Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Jung, Roberts, Whitcomb, Missmer, Manson, Hankinson, Bertone-Johenson, Koenen.

Statistical analysis: Jung, Roberts.

Obtained funding: Koenen.

Administrative, technical, or material support: Jung.

Study supervision: Koenen.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest disclosures

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

737_2018_916_MOESM1_ESM.docx (28 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 27 kb)


  1. Bertone-Johnson ER, Hankinson SE, Johnson SR, Manson JE (2007) A simple method of assessing premenstrual syndrome in large prospective studies. J Reprod Med 52(9):779–786PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Bertone-Johnson ER, Whitcomb BW, Missmer SA, Manson JE, Hankinson SE, Rich-Edwards JW (2014) Early life emotional, physical, and sexual abuse and the development of premenstrual syndrome: a longitudinal study. J Women's Health (Larchmt) 23(9):729–739CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Breslau N, Peterson EL, Kessler RC, Schultz LR (1999) Short screening scale for DSM-IV posttraumatic stress disorder. Am J Psychiatry 156(6):908–911CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Chocano-Bedoya PO, Manson JE, Hankinson SE, Willett WC, Johnson SR, Chasan-Taber L, Ronnenberg AG, Bigelow C, Bertone-Johnson ER (2013) Premenstrual syndrome. In: Goldman MB TR, Rexrode KM (eds) Women and health, Second edn. Elsevier, San DiegoGoogle Scholar
  5. Fink LA, Bernstein D, Handelsman L, Foote J, Lovejoy M (1995) Initial reliability and validity of the childhood trauma interview: a new multidimensional measure of childhood interpersonal trauma. Am J Psychiatry 152(9):1329–1335CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Golding JM, Taylor DL, Menard L, King MJ (2000) Prevalence of sexual abuse history in a sample of women seeking treatment for premenstrual syndrome. J Psychosom Obstet Gynaecol 21(2):69–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Hu FB, Satija A, Rimm EB, Spiegelman D, Sampson L, Rosner B, Camargo CA Jr, Stampfer M, Willett WC (2016) Diet assessment methods in the nurses’ health studies and contribution to evidence-based nutritional policies and guidelines. Am J Public Health 106(9):1567–1572CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Kilpatrick DG, Resnick HS, Milanak ME, Miller MW, Keyes KM, Friedman MJ (2013) National estimates of exposure to traumatic events and PTSD prevalence using DSM-IV and DSM-5 criteria. J Trauma Stress 26(5):537–547CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Koenen KC, De Vivo I, Rich-Edwards J, Smoller JW, Wright RJ, Purcell SM (2009) Protocol for investigating genetic determinants of posttraumatic stress disorder in women from the nurses’ health study II. BMC Psychiatry 9:29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Mortola JF, Girton L, Beck L, Yen SS (1990) Diagnosis of premenstrual syndrome by a simple, prospective, and reliable instrument: the calendar of premenstrual experiences. Obstet Gynecol 76(2):302–307PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Perkonigg A, Yonkers KA, Pfister H, Lieb R, Wittchen HU (2004) Risk factors for premenstrual dysphoric disorder in a community sample of young women: the role of traumatic events and posttraumatic stress disorder. J Clin Psychiatry 65(10):1314–1322CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Pilver CE, Levy BR, Libby DJ, Desai RA (2011) Posttraumatic stress disorder and trauma characteristics are correlates of premenstrual dysphoric disorder. Arch Womens Ment Health 14(5):383–393CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Roberts AL, Lyall K, Rich-Edwards JW, Ascherio A, Weisskopf MG (2013) Association of maternal exposure to childhood abuse with elevated risk for autism in offspring. JAMA Psychiatry 70(5):508–515CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Schnurr PP, Lunney CA, Sengupta A, Spiro A 3rd (2005) A longitudinal study of retirement in older male veterans. J Consult Clin Psychol 73(3):561–566CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Takeda T, Tadakawa M, Koga S, Nagase S, Yaegashi N (2013) Premenstrual symptoms and posttraumatic stress disorder in Japanese high school students 9 months after the great East-Japan earthquake. Tohoku J Exp Med 230(3):151–154CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Austria, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sun Jae Jung
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Andrea L. Roberts
    • 3
  • Patricia Chocano-Bedoya
    • 4
    • 5
  • Brian W. Whitcomb
    • 6
  • Stacey A. Missmer
    • 7
  • JoAnn E. Manson
    • 2
    • 8
    • 9
  • Susan E. Hankinson
    • 2
    • 8
    • 9
  • Elizabeth R. Bertone-Johnson
    • 6
  • Karestan C. Koenen
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Preventive MedicineYonsei University College of MedicineSeoulKorea
  2. 2.Department of EpidemiologyHarvard T.H. Chan School of Public HealthBostonUSA
  3. 3.Department of Environmental HealthHarvard T. H. Chan School of Public HealthBostonUSA
  4. 4.Center on Aging and MobilityUniversity of ZurichZurichSwitzerland
  5. 5.Department of Geriatrics and Aging ResearchUniversity Hospital Zurich, University of ZurichZurichSwitzerland
  6. 6.Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, School of Public Health and Health SciencesUniversity of Massachusetts AmherstAmherstUSA
  7. 7.Department of Obstetrics, Gynaecology, and Reproductive BiologyMichigan State UniversityGrand RapidsUSA
  8. 8.Channing Division of Network Medicine, Department of MedicineBrigham and Women’s Hospital and Harvard Medical SchoolBostonUSA
  9. 9.Division of Preventive Medicine, Department of MedicineBrigham and Women’s Hospital and Harvard Medical SchoolBostonUSA

Personalised recommendations