Advertisement

Amino Acids

pp 1–11 | Cite as

Biotechnological applications of nanostructured hybrids of polyamine carbon quantum dots and iron oxide nanoparticles

  • A. Venerando
  • M. Magro
  • D. Baratella
  • J. Ugolotti
  • S. Zanin
  • O. Malina
  • R. Zboril
  • H. Lin
  • F. VianelloEmail author
Original Article
  • 125 Downloads
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Polyamines: Biochemical and Pathophysiological Properties

Abstract

The combination of different nanomaterials has been investigated during the past few decades and represents an exciting challenge for the unexpected emerging properties of the resulting nano-hybrids. Spermidine (Spd), a biogenic polyamine, has emerged as a useful functional monomer for the development of carbon quantum dots (CQDs). Herein, an electrostatically stabilized ternary hybrid, constituted of iron oxide-DNA (the core) and spermidine carbon quantum dots (CQDSpds, the shell), was self-assembled and fully characterized. The as-obtained nano-hybrid was tested on HeLa cells to evaluate its biocompatibility as well as cellular uptake. Most importantly, besides being endowed by the magnetic features of the core, it displayed drastically enhanced fluorescence properties in comparison with parent CQDSpds and it is efficiently internalized by HeLa cells. This novel ternary nano-hybrid with multifaceted properties, ranging from fluorescence to superparamagnetism, represents an interesting option for cell tracking.

Keywords

Spermidine Carbon quantum dots Nano-hybrid Cell tracker Magnetic nanoparticle 

Abbreviations

CQD

Carbon quantum dot

EDX

Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy

FT-IR

Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy

MTT

3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide

PBS

Phosphate-buffered saline

SAMN

Surface active maghemite nanoparticles

Spd

Spermidine

ss-DNA

Salmon sperm deoxyribonucleic acid

TEM

Transmission electron microscopy

TMAOH

Tetramethylammonium hydroxide

WGA

Wheat-germ agglutinin

Notes

Acknowledgements

The present experimental work was partially funded by Italian Institutional Ministry Grants Cod. DOR1872491. The team members from the Czech Republic were supported by Grant No. LO1204 from the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports. The authors thank Dr. Jana Stráská for TEM measurements. The authors also thank ‘La Sapienza’ University of Rome and Italian MIUR (Ministero dell’Istruzione, dell’Università e della Ricerca). Our gratitude is also due to the “International Polyamine Foundation–ONLUS” for the availability to look up in the Polyamines documentation.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Human and animal rights

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

Supplementary material

726_2019_2721_MOESM1_ESM.docx (2.4 mb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 2490 kb)

References

  1. Bulte JWM, Arbab AS, Douglas T, Frank JA (2004) Preparation of magnetically labeled cells for cell tracking by magnetic resonance imaging. Methods in Enzymology. Academic Press, Cambridge, pp 275–299Google Scholar
  2. Cottin X, Monson PA (1995) Substitutionally ordered solid solutions of hard spheres. J Chem Phys 102:3354–3360.  https://doi.org/10.1063/1.469209 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Daniel M-C, Astruc D (2004) Gold nanoparticles: assembly, supramolecular chemistry, quantum-size-related properties, and applications toward biology, catalysis, and nanotechnology. Chem Rev 104:293–346.  https://doi.org/10.1021/cr030698+ CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Dhenadhayalan N, Lin K-C (2015) Chemically induced fluorescence switching of carbon-dots and its multiple logic gate implementation. Sci Rep 5:10012CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Eldridge MD, Madden PA, Frenkel D (1993a) The stability of the AB 13 crystal in a binary hard sphere system. Mol Phys 79:105–120.  https://doi.org/10.1080/00268979300101101 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Eldridge MD, Madden PA, Frenkel D (1993b) Entropy-driven formation of a superlattice in a hard-sphere binary mixture. Nature 365:35–37.  https://doi.org/10.1038/365035a0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Grunes J, Zhu J, Anderson EA, Somorjai GA (2002) Ethylene hydrogenation over platinum nanoparticle array model catalysts fabricated by electron beam lithography: determination of active metal surface area. J Phys Chem B 106:11463–11468.  https://doi.org/10.1021/jp021641e CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Hoinville J, Bewick A, Gleeson D et al (2003) High density magnetic recording on protein-derived nanoparticles. J Appl Phys 93:7187–7189.  https://doi.org/10.1063/1.1555896 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Jian H-J, Wu R-S, Lin T-Y et al (2017) Super-cationic carbon quantum dots synthesized from spermidine as an eye drop formulation for topical treatment of bacterial keratitis. ACS Nano 11:6703–6716.  https://doi.org/10.1021/acsnano.7b01023 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Kalsin AM, Kowalczyk B, Smoukov SK et al (2006) Ionic-like behavior of oppositely charged nanoparticles. J Am Chem Soc 128:15046–15047.  https://doi.org/10.1021/ja0642966 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Kamata K, Lu Y, Xia Y (2003) Synthesis and characterization of monodispersed core–shell spherical colloids with movable cores. J Am Chem Soc 125:2384–2385.  https://doi.org/10.1021/ja0292849 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Kim F, Connor S, Song H et al (2004) Platonic gold nanocrystals. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 43:3673–3677.  https://doi.org/10.1002/anie.200454216 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Kittel C (2004) Introduction to solid state physics, 8th edn. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  14. Li J, He X, Wu Z et al (2003) Piezoelectric immunosensor based on magnetic nanoparticles with simple immobilization procedures. Anal Chim Acta 481:191–198.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0003-2670(03)00089-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Lim SY, Shen W, Gao Z (2015) Carbon quantum dots and their applications. Chem Soc Rev 44:362–381.  https://doi.org/10.1039/c4cs00269e CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Lucas IT, Durand-Vidal S, Dubois E et al (2007) Surface charge density of maghemite nanoparticles: role of electrostatics in the proton exchange. J Phys Chem C 111:18568–18576.  https://doi.org/10.1021/jp0743119 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Magro M, Faralli A, Baratella D et al (2012a) Avidin functionalized maghemite nanoparticles and their application for recombinant human biotinyl-SERCA purification. Langmuir 28:15392–15401.  https://doi.org/10.1021/la303148u CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Magro M, Nodari L, Russo U, et al (2012b) Maghemite nanoparticles and method for preparing thereof. International Patent Application WO2012/010200 A1; US 8,980, 218 B2Google Scholar
  19. Magro M, Baratella D, Pianca N et al (2013) Electrochemical determination of hydrogen peroxide production by isolated mitochondria: a novel nanocomposite carbon–maghemite nanoparticle electrode. Sens Actuators B Chem 176:315–322.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.snb.2012.09.044 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Magro M, Campos R, Baratella D et al (2014) A magnetically drivable nanovehicle for curcumin with antioxidant capacity and MRI relaxation properties. Chemistry 20:11913–11920.  https://doi.org/10.1002/chem.201402820 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Magro M, Baratella D, Jakubec P et al (2015) Triggering mechanism for DNA electrical conductivity: reversible electron transfer between DNA and iron oxide nanoparticles. Adv Funct Mater 25:1822–1831.  https://doi.org/10.1002/adfm.201404372 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Magro M, Martinello T, Bonaiuto E et al (2017) Covalently bound DNA on naked iron oxide nanoparticles: intelligent colloidal nano-vector for cell transfection. Biochim Biophys Acta Gen Sub 1861:2802–2810.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbagen.2017.07.025 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Nogués J, Schuller IK (1999) Exchange bias. J Magn Magn Mater 192:203–232.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0304-8853(98)00266-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Patel VR, Agrawal YK (2011) Nanosuspension: an approach to enhance solubility of drugs. J Adv Pharm Technol Res 2:81–87.  https://doi.org/10.4103/2231-4040.82950 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Redl FX, Cho K-S, Murray CB, O’Brien S (2003) Three-dimensional binary superlattices of magnetic nanocrystals and semiconductor quantum dots. Nature 423:968–971.  https://doi.org/10.1038/nature01702 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Reguera J, Petit C, Scarabelli L et al (2015) Self-assembly processes: general discussion. Faraday Discuss 181:299–323.  https://doi.org/10.1039/c5fd90043c CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Rosi NL, Mirkin CA (2005) Nanostructures in biodiagnostics. Chem Rev 105:1547–1562.  https://doi.org/10.1021/cr030067f CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Seker F, Malenfant PRL, Larsen M et al (2005) On-demand control of optoelectronic coupling in gold nanoparticle arrays. Adv Mater 17:1941–1945.  https://doi.org/10.1002/adma.200400734 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Shevchenko EV, Talapin DV, Kotov NA et al (2006) Structural diversity in binary nanoparticle superlattices. Nature 439:55–59.  https://doi.org/10.1038/nature04414 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Shipway AN, Katz E, Willner I (2000) Nanoparticle arrays on surfaces for electronic, optical, and sensor applications. ChemPhysChem 1:18–52.  https://doi.org/10.1002/1439-7641(20000804)1:1%3c18:AID-CPHC18%3e3.0.CO;2-L CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Simonson T (2003) Electrostatics and dynamics of proteins. Rep Prog Phys 66:737.  https://doi.org/10.1088/0034-4885/66/5/202 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Skopalik J, Polakova K, Havrdova M et al (2014) Mesenchymal stromal cell labeling by new uncoated superparamagnetic maghemite nanoparticles in comparison with commercial Resovist–an initial in vitro study. Int J Nanomedicine 9:5355–5372.  https://doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S66986 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Soenen SJH, De Cuyper M (2009) Assessing cytotoxicity of (iron oxide-based) nanoparticles: an overview of different methods exemplified with cationic magnetoliposomes. Contrast Media Mol Imaging 4:207–219.  https://doi.org/10.1002/cmmi.282 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Son DH, Hughes SM, Yin Y, Paul Alivisatos A (2004) Cation exchange reactions in ionic nanocrystals. Science 306:1009–1012.  https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1103755 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Sönnichsen C, Reinhard BM, Liphardt J, Alivisatos AP (2005) A molecular ruler based on plasmon coupling of single gold and silver nanoparticles. Nat Biotechnol 23:741–745.  https://doi.org/10.1038/nbt1100 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Stellacci F (2005) Nanoscale materials: a new season. Nat Mater 4:113–114.  https://doi.org/10.1038/nmat1316 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Stroh A, Zimmer C, Gutzeit C et al (2004) Iron oxide particles for molecular magnetic resonance imaging cause transient oxidative stress in rat macrophages. Free Radic Biol Med 36:976–984.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2004.01.016 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Trindade T, O’Brien P, Pickett NL (2001) Nanocrystalline semiconductors: synthesis, properties, and perspectives. Chem Mater 13:3843–3858.  https://doi.org/10.1021/cm000843p CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Trizac E, Eldridge MD, Madden PA (1997) Stability of the AB crystal for asymmetric binary hard sphere mixtures. Mol Phys 90:675–678.  https://doi.org/10.1080/00268979709482651 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Tucek J, Zboril R, Petridis D (2006) Maghemite nanoparticles by view of Mössbauer spectroscopy. J Nanosci Nanotechnol 6:926–947CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Tucker JR (1992) Complementary digital logic based on the “Coulomb blockade”. J Appl Phys 72:4399–4413.  https://doi.org/10.1063/1.352206 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Venerando R, Miotto G, Magro M et al (2013) Magnetic nanoparticles with covalently bound self-assembled protein Corona for advanced biomedical applications. J Phys Chem C 117:20320–20331.  https://doi.org/10.1021/jp4068137 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Williams LD, Maher LJ (2000) Electrostatic mechanisms of DNA deformation. Annu Rev Biophys Biomol Struct 29:497–521.  https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.biophys.29.1.497 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Xia Y, Gates B, Li Z-Y (2001) Self-assembly approaches to three-dimensional photonic crystals. Adv Mater 13:409–413.  https://doi.org/10.1002/1521-4095(200103)13:6%3c409:AID-ADMA409%3e3.0.CO;2-C CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Zayats M, Kharitonov AB, Pogorelova SP et al (2003) Probing photoelectrochemical processes in Au-CdS nanoparticle arrays by surface plasmon resonance: application for the detection of acetylcholine esterase inhibitors. J Am Chem Soc 125:16006–16014.  https://doi.org/10.1021/ja0379215 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Zhang Y, Shen Y, Yuan J et al (2006) Design and synthesis of multifunctional materials based on an ionic-liquid backbone. Angew Chem Int Ed 45:5867–5870.  https://doi.org/10.1002/anie.200600120 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Zhang Y, Shen Y, Han D et al (2007) Carbon nanotubes and glucose oxidase bionanocomposite bridged by ionic liquid-like unit: preparation and electrochemical properties. Biosens Bioelectron 23:438–443.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bios.2007.06.010 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Austria, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Comparative Biomedicine and Food ScienceAgripolis Campus, University of PaduaLegnaroItaly
  2. 2.Department of Physical Chemistry, Regional Centre of Advanced Technologies and MaterialsPalacky UniversityOlomoucCzech Republic
  3. 3.Department of MedicineUniversity of PaduaPaduaItaly
  4. 4.Department of Bioscience and BiotechnologyNational Taiwan Ocean UniversityKeelungTaiwan
  5. 5.International Polyamines Foundation – ONLUSRomeItaly

Personalised recommendations