Maternal l-proline supplementation during gestation alters amino acid and polyamine metabolism in the first generation female offspring of C57BL/6J mice
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We recently reported that dietary supplementation with l-proline (proline) during gestation improved embryonic survival in C57BL/6J mice. The objective of the present study was to test the hypothesis that the effect of maternal proline supplementation on embryonic survival can be carried forward to the first generation female offspring. In the F0 generation, pregnant dams were fed a purified diet supplemented with 0 (control) or 5 g proline/kg diet. The F1 female adult offsprings were bred to fertile males. Fetal survival at embryonic day (E)12.5 and reproductive outcomes at term birth were recorded. The concentrations of amino acids, ammonia, and urea in plasma and amniotic fluid, as well as concentrations of polyamines in placental tissues and amniotic fluid at E12.5 were determined. Results showed that the F1 generation female offspring from proline-supplemented dams had higher (P < 0.05) concentrations of glutamate and taurine in plasma; of putrescine and spermidine in placental tissues; and of glycine, taurine, and spermidine in amniotic fluid at E12.5, as compared with F1 generation female offsprings from dams without proline supplementation. Concentration of proline in the plasma of offspring mice from proline-supplemented dams were lower (P < 0.05), as compared with the control group. No differences in fetal survival, reproductive outcomes, or concentrations of ammonia and urea in plasma and amniotic fluid were observed between the two groups of F1 female offspring. Collectively, our results indicate that the benefits of maternal proline supplementation during gestation on improving embryonic survival and fetal growth in F0 females are not transmitted to their F1 generation females.
KeywordsFemale offspring Fetal survival l-Proline Mice Placenta Polyamines
This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 31572412, 31572410, 31625025, and 31272450), and Texas A&M AgriLife Research (H-8200).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare no competing financial interest.
This animal study was approved by the Animal Use and Care Committee of China Agricultural University.
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