Amino Acids

, Volume 51, Issue 4, pp 641–646 | Cite as

Taurine protects against NMDA-induced retinal damage by reducing retinal oxidative stress

  • Azliana Jusnida Ahmad Jafri
  • Renu AgarwalEmail author
  • Igor Iezhitsa
  • Puneet Agarwal
  • Nafeeza Mohd Ismail
Original Article


This study aimed to evaluate effect of TAU on NMDA-induced changes in retinal redox status, retinal cell apoptosis and retinal morphology in Sprague–Dawley rats. Taurine was injected intravitreally as pre-, co- or post-treatment with NMDA and 7 days post-treatment retinae were processed for estimation of oxidative stress, retinal morphology using H&E staining and retinal cell apoptosis using TUNEL staining. Treatment with TAU, particularly pre-treatment, significantly increased retinal glutathione, superoxide dismutase and catalase levels compared to NMDA-treated rats; whereas, the levels of malondialdehyde reduced significantly. Reduction in retinal oxidative stress in TAU pre-treated group was associated with significantly greater fractional thickness of ganglion cell layer within inner retina and retinal cell density in inner retina. TUNEL staining showed significantly reduced apoptotic cell count in TAU pre-treated group compared to NMDA group. It could be concluded that TAU protects against NMDA-induced retinal injury in rats by reducing retinal oxidative stress.


NMDA Taurine Retina Oxidative stress 







Endoplasmic reticulum




Ganglion cell layer


Inner retina






Nitric oxide


Nitric oxide synthase


Reduced glutathione


Superoxide dismutase


Standard deviation



We acknowledge the administrative and facility support by Research Management Institute, Institute of Medical Molecular Biotechnology (IMMB) and Laboratory Animal Care Unit, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia. The authors also acknowledge the financial support by Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia, under Grant no. 600-IRMI/DANA 5/3/Bestari (P) (003/2018).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

Authors declare that no conflicts of interest exist.

Ethical approval

The study was approved by The Committee of Animal Research and Ethics (UiTM CARE). Study was done in Compliance with the local institutional ethical guidelines and according to ARVO statement for ophthalmic and vision research.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Austria, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Center for Neuroscience Research, Faculty of MedicineUniversiti Teknologi MARA Sungai Buloh CampusSungai BulohMalaysia
  2. 2.I-PPerForM, Faculty of MedicineUniversiti Teknologi MARA Sungai Buloh CampusSungai BulohMalaysia
  3. 3.Research Institute of PharmacologyVolgograd State Medical UniversityVolgogradRussia
  4. 4.Faculty of MedicineInternational Medical University, IMU Clinical SchoolSerembanMalaysia

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