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Amino Acids

pp 1–10 | Cite as

Plasma profiling of amino acids distinguishes acute gout from asymptomatic hyperuricemia

  • Ying Luo
  • Ling Wang
  • Xin-Ying Liu
  • Xiaolong Chen
  • Ya-Xiang Song
  • Xin-Hua Li
  • Cizong Jiang
  • Ai Peng
  • Jun-Yan Liu
Original Article
  • 34 Downloads

Abstract

Gout and hyperuricemia are highly prevalent metabolic diseases caused by high level of uric acid. Amino acids (AAs) involve in various biochemical processes including the biosynthesis of uric acid. However, the role of AAs in discriminating gout from hyperuricemia remains unknown. Here, we report that the plasma AAs profile can distinguish acute gout (AG) from asymptomatic hyperuricemia (AHU). We established an LC–MS/MS-based method to measure the plasma AAs without derivatization for the AG and AHU patients, and healthy controls. We found that the plasma profiling of AAs separated the AG patients from AHU patients and controls visually in both principal component analysis and orthogonal partial least-squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) models. In addition, l-isoleucine, l-lysine, and l-alanine were suggested as the key mediators to distinguish the AG patients from AHU and control groups based on the S-plot analysis and variable importance in the projection values in the OPLS-DA models, volcano plot, and the receiver operating characteristic curves. In addition, the saturation of monosodium urate in the AA solutions at physiologically mimic status supported the changes in plasma AAs facilitating the precipitation of monosodium urate. This study suggests that l-isoleucine, l-lysine, and l-alanine could be the potential markers to distinguish the AG from AHU when the patients have similar blood levels of uric acid, providing new strategies for the prevention, treatment, and management of acute gout.

Keywords

l-Isoleucine l-Lysine l-Alanine Metabolomics Hyperuricemia Gout 

Abbreviations

AA

Amino acid

ACN

Acetonitrile

AG

Acute attack of gout, and acute gout

AHU

Asymptomatic hyperuricemia

ESI

Electrospray ionization

MeOH

Methanol

PCA

Principal component analysis

OPLS-DA

Orthogonal partial least-squares discriminant analysis

MSU

Monosodium urate

UA

Uric acid

LOD

Limit of detection

LOQ

Limit of quantitation

DP

Declustering potential

CE

Collision energy

CXP

Collision cell exit potential

SUS

Shared and unique structures

VIP

Variable importance in the projection

ROC

Receiver operating characteristic

Notes

Acknowledgements

This study was supported NSFC Grant 81470588 (J.-Y. L.). The authors would like to thank all the patients and healthy volunteers for the participation in this study.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Research involving human participants and/or animals

The authors complied with the World Medical Association Declaration of Helsinki regarding the ethical conduct of research involving in human subjects. This study and the associated protocols for sample collection were approved by the Ethics Committee of Shanghai Tenth People’s Hospital (SHSY-IEC-KY-4.0/17–60/01).

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in this study.

Supplementary material

726_2018_2627_MOESM1_ESM.docx (188 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 188 kb)

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Austria, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Center for Nephrology and Metabolomics and Division of Nephrology and RheumatologyShanghai Tenth People’s Hospital, Tongji University School of MedicineShanghaiChina
  2. 2.The School of Life Sciences and Technology, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Signaling and Disease ResearchTongji UniversityShanghaiChina

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