Advertisement

Mineralogy and Petrology

, Volume 113, Issue 4, pp 433–448 | Cite as

Influence of differential stress on the growth of wet enstatite and enstatite-forsterite reaction rims

  • Erik RybackiEmail author
  • Vanessa Helpa
Original Paper
  • 53 Downloads

Abstract

Reaction rim growth experiments provide insight into mass transport phenomena, which are important for metamorphic rock-forming processes and deformation mechanisms. We investigated the formation of enstatite single rims between quartz and forsterite and of enstatite-forsterite double rims between quartz and periclase using porous polycrystalline starting materials. About 3 wt% water was added, acting as a catalyst for reactions. Experiments of mainly 4 and 23 h duration were performed in a Paterson-type deformation apparatus at 1000 °C temperature, 400 MPa confining pressure and differential stresses between 0 and 46 MPa. The resulting reaction rim width varied between <1 μm and ≈ 23 μm, depending on duration and type of reaction product. At isostatic pressure conditions, our data indicate that rim growth is proportional to time, controlled by dissolution-precipitation at interfaces of interconnected fluid-filled pores. In contrast, under non-isostatic stress conditions the reaction rim thickness increases non-linearly with time, implying diffusion-controlled growth. The magnitude of differential stress has no systematic influence on the reaction rate. Microstructural observations suggest that deformation-induced reduction of interconnected porosity causes this change in rate-controlling mechanism. For a natural MgO-SiO2 system, the results infer that fast interface-controlled reaction in the presence of high amounts of water is easily suppressed by concurrent deformation.

Keywords

Water Rim growth Differential stress Mineral reaction Deformation 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We are grateful to Stefan Gehrmann for sample preparation, Anja Schreiber for FIB sample preparation, Michael Naumann for technical support with the Paterson apparatus, Richard Wirth for help with the TEM, Monika Koch-Müller (all Helmholtz Centre Potsdam - GFZ) for help with FTIR, Oona Appelt and Sabine Meister (Freie Universität Berlin) for help with the EPMA, and Ilona Schäpan for help with the SEM. We further like to thank Reinhard Uecker (Leibnitz Institute for Crystal Growth) for providing a forsterite single crystal and Olaf Krause (University of Koblenz) for providing synthetic forsterite aggregates. The manuscript benefited from valuable discussions with Ralf Milke, Emmanuel Gardés and Petr Jeřábek. Very constructive reviews provided by Rainer Abart and an anonymous reviewer, as well as comments for handling by the Associate Editor William Guenthner, improved considerably the manuscript. This work was funded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft within the framework of FOR 741, Project RY 103/1-2, which is gratefully acknowledged.

References

  1. Abart R, Petrishcheva E (2011) Thermodynamic model for reaction rim growth: Interface reaction and diffusion control. Am J Sci 311:517–527CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Abart R, Kunze K, Milke R, Sperb R, Heinrich W (2004) Silicon and oxygen self diffusion in enstatite polycrystals: the Milke et al. (2001) rim growth experiments revisited. Contrib Mineral Petrol 147:633–646CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Abart R, Petrishcheva E, Fischer FD, Svoboda J (2009) Thermodynamic model for diffusion controlled reaction rim growth in a binary system: application to the forsterite-enstatite-quartz system. Am J Sci 309:114–131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Brady JB (1983) Intergranular diffusion in metamorphic rocks. Am J Sci 283A:181–200Google Scholar
  5. Brodie KH, Rutter EH (1985) On the relationship between deformation and metamorphism, with special reference to the behaviour of basic rocks. In: Thompson AB, Rubie DC (eds) Metamorphic reactions. Advances in physical geochemistry, vol 4. Springer, New York, pp 138–179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Brook JR (1976) Controlled grain growth. In: FFY W (ed) Ceramic fabrication processes. Treatise on materials science and technology, vol 9. Academic Press, New York, pp 331–364CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Chernosky JV, Day HW, Caruso LJ (1985) Equilibria in the system MgO-SiO2-H2O: experimental determination of the stability of Mg-anthophyllite. Am Mineral 70:223–236Google Scholar
  8. Connolly JAD (1990) Multivariable phase diagrams: an algorithm based on generalized thermodynamics. Am J Sci 290:666–718CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Connolly JAD (2005) Computation of phase equilibria by linear programming: a tool for geodynamic modeling and its application to subduction zone decarbonation. Earth Planet Sci Lett 236:524–541CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Covey-Crump SJ (1997) The normal grain growth behaviour of nominally pure calcitic aggregates. Contrib Mineral Petrol 129:239–254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. de Ronde AA, Stünitz H (2007) Deformation-enhanced reaction in experimentally deformed plagioclase-olivine aggregates. Contrib Mineral Petrol 153:699–717CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. de Ronde AA, Heilbronner R, Stünitz H, Tullis J (2004) Spatial correlation of deformation and mineral reaction in experimentally deformed plagioclase-olivine aggregates. Tectonophys 389:93–109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Delle Piane C, Wilson CJL, Burlini L (2009) Dilatant plasticity in high-strain experiments on calcite-muscovite aggregates. J Struct Geol 31:1084–1099CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Dohmen R, Milke R (2010) Diffusion in polycrystalline materials: grain boundaries, mathematical models, and experimental data. In: Zhang YX, Cherniak DJ (eds) Diffusion in minerals and melts. Rev Mineral Geochem 72:921–70.Google Scholar
  15. Fisher GW (1978) Rate laws in metamorphism. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 42:1035–1050CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Fisler DK, Mackwell SJ, Petsch S (1997) Grain boundary diffusion in enstatite. Phys Chem Miner 24:264–273CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Gaidies F, Milke R, Heinrich W, Abart R (2017) Metamorphic mineral reactions: Porphyroblast, corona and symplectite growth. In: Heinrich W, Abart R (eds.), Mineral reaction kinetics: Microstructures, textures, chemical and isotopic signatures. European Mineralogical Union, Notes in Mineralogy 16, London, pp 469–540.  https://doi.org/10.1180/EMU-notes.16.14
  18. Gardés E, Heinrich W (2011) Growth of multilayered polycrystalline reaction rims in the MgO–SiO2 system, Part II: modelling. Contrib Mineral Petrol 162:37–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Gardés E, Wunder B, Wirth R, Heinrich W (2011) Growth of multilayered polycrystalline reaction rims in the MgO–SiO2 system, part I: experiments. Contrib Mineral Petrol 161:1–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Gardés E, Wunder B, Marquardt K, Heinrich W (2012) The effect of water on intergranular mass transport: new insights from diffusion-controlled reaction rims in the MgO–SiO2 system. Contrib Mineral Petrol 164:1–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Gebrande H (1982) Elasticity and inelasticity. In: Angenheister G (ed) Numerical data and functional relationships in science and technology. Landolt-Börnstein vol 1. Physical properties of rocks. Springer, New York, pp 1–238Google Scholar
  22. Goergen ET, Whitney DL, Zimmerman ME, Hiraga T (2008) Deformation-induced polymorphic transformation: experimental deformation of kyanite, andalusite, and sillimanite. Tectonophys 454:23–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Götze LC, Abart R, Rybacki E, Keller LM, Petrishcheva E, Dresen G (2010) Reaction rim growth in the system MgO-Al2O3-SiO2 under uniaxial stress. Mineral Petrol 99:263–277CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Heidelbach F, Terry MP, Bystricky M, Holzapfel C, McCammon C (2009) A simultaneous deformation and diffusion experiment: quantifying the role of deformation in enhancing metamorphic reactions. Earth Planet Sci Lett 278:386–394CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Heinisch HL, Sines G, Goodman JW, Kirby SH (1975) Elastic stresses and self-energies of dislocations of arbitrary orientation in anisotropic media: olivine, orthopyroxene, calcite, and quartz. J Geophys Res 80:1885–1896CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Helpa V, Rybacki E, Morales LFG, Dresen G (2015) Influence of stress and strain on dolomite rim growth: a comparative study. Contrib Mineral Petrol 170:16.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00410-015-1172-1
  27. Helpa V, Rybacki E, Morales LFG, Dresen G (2016) Influence of grain size, water, and deformation on dolomite reaction rim formation. Am Mineral 101:2655–2665CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Hidas K, Tommasi A, Mainprice D, Chauve T, Barou F, Montagnat M (2017) Microstructural evolution during thermal annealing of ice-Ih. J Struct Geol 99:31–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Hirth G, Tullis J (1994) The brittle-plastic transition in experimentally deformed quartz aggregates. J Geophys Res 99:11731–11747CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Hobbs BE, Ord A (2016) Does non-hydrostatic stress influence the equilibrium of metamorphic reactions? Earth Sci Rev 163:190–233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Holland TJB, Powell R (1998) An internally consistent thermodynamic dataset for phases of petrologic interest. J Metamorph Geol 16:309–343CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Humphreys FJ, Hatherly M (2004) Recrystallization and related annealing phenomenon, 2nd edn. Elsevier, London, 617 ppGoogle Scholar
  33. Jaeger JC, Cook NGW, Zimmerman RW (2007) Fundamentals of rock mechanics, 4th edn. Blackwell, Oxford, 469 ppGoogle Scholar
  34. Jeřábek P, Abart R, Rybacki E, Habler G (2014) Microstructure and texture evolution during growth of magnesio-aluminate spinel at corundum-periclase interfaces under uniaxial load: the effect of stress concentration on reaction progress. Am J Sci 314:940–965CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Karato S (2008) Deformation of earth materials. Cambridge University Press, New York, 463 ppCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Karato S, Jung H (2003) Effects of pressure on high-temperature dislocation creep of olivine. Phil Mag A 83:401–414CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Keller LM, Abart R, Wirth R, Schmid DW, Kunze K (2006) Enhanced mass transfer through short-circuit diffusion: growth of garnet reaction rims at eclogite facies conditions. Am Mineral 91:1024–1038CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Keller LM, Wirth R, Rhede D, Kunze K, Abart R (2008) Asymetrically zoned reaction rims: Âssessment of grain boundary diffusivities and growth rates related to natural diffusion controlled mineral reactions. J Metamorph Geol 26:99–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Keller LM, Götze LC, Rybacki E, Dresen G, Abart R (2010) Enhancement of solid-state reaction rates by non-hydrostatic stress effects on polycrystalline diffusion kinetics. Am Mineral 95:1399–1407CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Kenkmann T, Dresen G (2002) Dislocation microstructure and phase distribution in a lower crustal shearzone - an example from the Ivrea-Zone, Italy. Int J Earth Sci (Geol Rundsch) 91:445–458.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00531-001-0236-9
  41. Keppler H, Bolfan-Casanova N (2006) Thermodynamics of water solubility and partitioning. In: Keppler H, Smyth JR (eds) Water in nominally anhydrous minerals. Rev Mineral Geochem 62:193–230Google Scholar
  42. Kubo T, Ohtani E, Kato T, Shinmei T, Fujino K (1998) Effects of water on the α-β transformation kinetics in San Carlos olivine. Science 281:85–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Lasaga AC (1984) Chemical kinetics of water-rock interactions. J Geophys Res 89:4009–4025CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Lasaga AC, Blum AE (1986) Surface chemistry, etch pits and mineral-water reactions. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 50:2363–2379CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Mei S, Kohlstedt DL (2000) Influence of water on plastic deformation of olivine aggregates 2. Dislocation creep regime. J Geophys Res 105:21471–21481CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Menegon L, Pennacchioni G, Stünitz H (2006) Nucleation and growth of myrmekite during ductile shear deformation in metagranites. J Metamorph Geol 24:553–568CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Milke R, Wiedenbeck M, Heinrich W (2001) Grain boundary diffusion of Si, Mg, and O in enstatite reaction rims: a SIMS study using isotopically doped reactants. Contrib Mineral Petrol 142:15–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Milke R, Dohmen R, Becker HW, Wirth R (2007) Growth kinetics of enstatite reaction rims studied on nano-scale, Part I: methodology, microscopic observations and the role of water. Contrib Mineral Petrol 154:519–533CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Milke R, Abart R, Kunze K, Koch-Müller M, Schmid D, Ulmer P (2009a) Matrix rheology effects on reaction rim growth I: evidence from orthopyroxene rim growth experiments. J Metamorph Geol 27:71–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Milke R, Kolzer K, Koch-Müller M, Wunder B (2009b) Orthopyroxene rim growth between olivine and quartz at low temperatures (750–950°C) and low water concentration. Mineral Petrol 97:223–232CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Milke R, Neusser G, Kolzer K, Wunder B (2013) Very little water is necessary to make a dry solid silicate system wet. Geology 41:247–250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Milke R, Heinrich W, Götze L, Schorr S (2017) New avenues in experimentation on diffusion-controlled mineral reactions. In: Heinrich W, Abart R (eds) Mineral reaction kinetics: Mictrostructures, textures, chemical and isotopic signatures. European Mineralogical Union Notes in Mineralogy 16, London, pp 5–36Google Scholar
  53. Morris SJS (2002) Coupling of interface kinetics and transformation-induced strain during pressure-induced solid–solid phase changes. J Mech Phys Solids 50:1363–1395CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Nishihara Y, Maruyama G, Nishi M (2016) Growth kinetics of forsterite reaction rims at high-pressure. Phys Earth Planet Inter 257:220–229CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Olgaard D, Evans B (1988) Grain growth in synthetic marbles with added mica and water. Contrib Mineral Petrol 100:246–260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Paterson M (1982) The determination of hydroxyl by infrared absorption in quartz, silicate glasses and similar materials. Bull Mineral 105:20–29Google Scholar
  57. Paterson MS, Luan FC (1990) Quartzite rheology under geological conditions. In: Knipe RJ, Rutter EH (eds) Deformation Mechanisms, Rheology and Tectonics, Geological Society, London. Special Publication, pp 299–307Google Scholar
  58. Richter B, Stünitz H, Heilbronner R (2016) Stresses and pressures at the quartz-to-coesite phase transformation in shear deformation experiments. J Geophys Res 121(11):8015–8033CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Rubie DC (1986) The catalysis of mineral reactions by water and restrictions on the presence of aqueous fluid during metamorphism. Min Mag 50:399–415CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Rubie DC, Thompson AB (1985) Kinetics of metamorphic reactions at elevated temperatures and pressures: an appraisal of available experimental data. In: Thompson AB, Rubie DC (eds) Metamorphic Reactions. Advances in Physical Geochemistry, vol 4. Springer, New York, pp 27–79Google Scholar
  61. Rutter EH, Brodie KH (2004) Experimental intracrystalline plastic flow in hot-pressed synthetic quartzite prepared from Brazilian quartz crystals. J Struct Geol 26:259–270CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Rybacki E, Gottschalk M, Wirth R, Dresen G (2006) Influence of water fugacity and activation volume on the flow properties of fine-grained anorthite aggregates. J Geophys Res 111(16).  https://doi.org/10.1029/2005JB003663
  63. Rybacki E, Evans B, Janssen C, Wirth R, Dresen G (2013) Influence of stress, temperature, and strain on calcite twins constrained by deformation experiments. Tectonophysics 601:20–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Schmid DW, Abart R, Podladchikov YY, Milke R (2009) Matrix rheology effects on reaction rim growth II: coupled diffusion and creep model. J Metamorph Geol 27:83–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Schott J, Pokrovsky OS, Oelkers EH (2009) The link between mineral dissolution/precipitation and solution chemistry. In: Oelkers EH, Schott J (eds) thermodynamics and kinetics of water-rock interaction. Rev Min Geochem 70:207–258Google Scholar
  66. Terry MP, Heidelbach F (2006) Deformation-enhanced metamorphic reactions and the rheology of high-pressure shear zones, Western gneiss region, Norway. J Metamorph Geol 24:3–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Underwood EE (1970) Quantitative stereology. Addison-Wesley-Langman, Reading, 274 ppGoogle Scholar
  68. Vaughan PJ, Green HW, Coe RS (1984) Anisotropic growth in the olivine-spinel transformation of Mg2GeO4 under nonhydrostatic stress. Tectonophysics 108(3):299–322CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Vrijmoed JC, Podladchikov YY (2015) Thermodynamic equilibrium at heterogeneous pressure. Contrib Mineral Petrol 170:10.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00410-015-1156-1
  70. Wagner W, Pruß A (2002) The IAPWS formulation 1995 for the thermodynamic properties of ordinary water substance for general and scientific use. J Phys Chem Ref Data 31:387–535CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Wheeler J (2014) Dramatic effects of stress on metamorphic reactions. Geology 42:647–650CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Yund RA (1997) Rates of grain boundary diffusion through enstatite and forsterite reaction rims. Contrib Mineral Petrol 126:224–236CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Austria, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Helmholtz Centre Potsdam German Research Centre for Geosciences – GFZPotsdamGermany

Personalised recommendations