Mineralogy and Petrology

, Volume 113, Issue 3, pp 369–391 | Cite as

The origin of the carbonate-hosted Huize Zn–Pb–Ag deposit, Yunnan province, SW China: constraints from the trace element and sulfur isotopic compositions of pyrite

  • Yu-Miao Meng
  • Rui-Zhong HuEmail author
  • Xiao-Wen Huang
  • Jian-Feng Gao
  • Christian Sasseville
Original Paper


The Huize Zn–Pb–Ag deposit in SW China has an ore reserve in excess of 5 Mt. with an ore grade of ≥25 wt% Zn + Pb and 46–100 g/t Ag. This deposit is hosted in Carboniferous dolostone and limestone. Sulfide mineralization is dominated by sphalerite, galena, and pyrite. Four types of pyrite (Py1 to Py4) are temporally and spatially related to mineralization distinguished on the basis of textural features and mineral associations. Pyrite 1 to 3 corresponds to the pyrite-sphalerite sub-stage, whereas Py4 corresponds to sphalerite-galena-pyrite sub-stage. Pyrite 1 shows zoned texture composed of an inclusion-rich core and an inclusion-free rim, whereas Py2, Py3, and Py4 show replacement relic or overgrowth textures. The zoned texture in Py1 was formed by multiple stages of ore fluids, whereas replacement relic texture in Py2 to Py4 was formed by replacement of pyrite by late Pb-Zn-rich fluids. Trace element variation in pyrite results from a combination of mineral inclusions, co-precipitating minerals, and various fluid compositions. Sphalerite, pyrite, and galena have δ34S values of 10.4–23.5‰, suggesting that sulfur was probably derived from the thermochemical reduction of marine sulfates. The Huize pyrite has Co and Ni concentrations (0.02–9.5 ppm and 0.08–143 ppm, respectively) and Co/Ni ratios (~0.01–2.63) similar to pyrite from sedimentary exhalative deposits, submarine hydrothermal vents, and sedimentary pyrite, which may be due to pyrite precipitation from low-temperature (<~250 °C), basin brines or seawater. The Co/Ni ratios of the Huize pyrite are lower than those (~0.2–7.2) of pyrite from Mississippi Valley-type Zn-Pb deposits. The Huize pyrite has Co and Ni contents lower than those associated with volcanogenic massive sulfide, iron oxide copper gold, and porphyry Cu deposits, arguing against the involvement of a magmatic/volcanic component and a direct genetic link between Permian Emeishan basalts and Pb-Zn mineralization. Combining with fluid inclusion temperatures and silver grade, we define the Huize deposit as a transitional type between Mississippi Valley-type and high-temperature carbonate-replacement Zn-Pb deposits.


Trace elements Sulfur isotopes Pyrite LA-ICP-MS Huize Zn–Pb–Ag MVT deposits 



This research was supported jointly by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (41503045 and 41673050), the National “973” Program of China (2014CB440906), the CAS/SAFEA International Partnership Program (KZZD-EW-TZ-20), and CAS “Light of West China” Program to YMM. Thanks are given to Gu Jing and Liang Chong for sulfur isotope and LA-ICP-MS trace element analyses, respectively. Ge Wanting and Liu Yan are thanked for micro-drill sampling for sulfur isotope analyses. Thanks are given to Luke George and two anonymous reviewers for constructive comments on the early version, and M.A.T.M. Broekmans, Luca Bindi, and Lhiric Agoyaoy for editorial handling.

Supplementary material

710_2019_654_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (507 kb)
Online Resource 1 (PDF 507 kb)
710_2019_654_MOESM2_ESM.pdf (448 kb)
Online Resource 2 (PDF 448 kb)
710_2019_654_MOESM3_ESM.pdf (26 kb)
Online Resource 3 (PDF 26 kb)
710_2019_654_MOESM4_ESM.pdf (323 kb)
Online Resource 4 (PDF 323 kb)


  1. Abraitis PK, Pattrick RAD, Vaughan DJ (2004) Variations in the compositional, textural and electrical properties of natural pyrite: a review. Int J Miner Process 74:41–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Anderson GM (1991) Organic maturation and ore precipitation in Southeast Missouri. Econ Geol 86:909–926CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Anderson GM, Macqueen RW (1982) Ore deposit models-6. Mississippi Valley-type lead-zinc deposits. Geosci Can 9:108–117Google Scholar
  4. Bajwah ZU, Seccombe PK, Offler R (1987) Trace element distribution, Co: Ni ratios and genesis of the Big Cadia iron-copper deposit, New South Wales, Australia. Miner Deposita 22:292–300CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Baker T, Mustard R, Brown V, Pearson N, Stanley C, Radford N, Butler I (2006) Textural and chemical zonation of pyrite at Pajingo: a potential vector to epithermal gold veins. Geochem Explor Environ Anal 6:283–293CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Belissont R, Boiron M-C, Luais B, Cathelineau M (2014) LA-ICP-MS analyses of minor and trace elements and bulk Ge isotopes in zoned Ge-rich sphalerites from the Noailhac–Saint-Salvy deposit (France): Insights into incorporation mechanisms and ore deposition processes. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 126:518–540CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Berner ZA, Puchelt H, Noeltner T, Kramar UTZ (2013) Pyrite geochemistry in the Toarcian Posidonia Shale of south-west Germany: Evidence for contrasting trace-element patterns of diagenetic and syngenetic pyrites. Sedimentology 60:548–573CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bernstein LR (1985) Germanium geochemistry and mineralogy. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 49:2409–2422CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bonsall TA, Spry PG, Voudouris PC, Tombros S, Seymour KS, Melfos V (2011) The geochemistry of carbonate-replacement Pb-Zn-Ag mineralization in the Lavrion district, Attica, Greece: Fluid inclusion, stable isotope, and rare earth element studies. Econ Geol 106:619–651CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bralia A, Sabatini G, Troja F (1979) A revaluation of the Co/Ni ratio in pyrite as geochemical tool in ore genesis problems. Miner Deposita 14:353–374CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Chung S-L, B-m J (1995) Plume-lithosphere interaction in generation of the Emeishan flood basalts at the Permian-Triassic boundary. Geology 23:889–892CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Cioacă ME, Munteanu M, Qi L, Costin G (2014) Trace element concentrations in porphyry copper deposits from Metaliferi Mountains, Romania: A reconnaissance study. Ore Geol Rev 63:22–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Claypool GE, Holser WT, Kaplan IR, Sakai H, Zak I (1980) The age curves of sulfur and oxygen isotopes in marine sulfate and their mutual interpretation. Chem Geol 28:199–260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Cook N, Ciobanu CL, George L, Zhu Z-Y, Wade B, Ehrig K (2016) Trace element analysis of minerals in magmatic-hydrothermal ores by laser ablation inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry: Approaches and opportunities. Minerals 6:1–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Cook NJ, Ciobanu CL, Mao J (2009) Textural control on gold distribution in As-free pyrite from the Dongping, Huangtuliang and Hougou gold deposits, North China Craton (Hebei Province, China). Chem Geol 264:101–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Cooke DR, Bull SW, Large RR, McGoldrick PJ (2000) The importance of oxidized brines for the formation of Australian Proterozoic stratiform sediment-hosted Pb-Zn (Sedex) deposits. Econ Geol 95:1–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Croghan CW, Egeghy PP (2003) Methods of dealing with values below the limit of detection using SAS. Southeastern SAS User Group (City, 22–24 September 2003)Google Scholar
  18. Deditius AP, Reich M, Kesler SE, Utsunomiya S, Chryssoulis SL, Walshe J, Ewing RC (2014) The coupled geochemistry of Au and As in pyrite from hydrothermal ore deposits. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 140:644–670CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Deditius AP, Utsunomiya S, Reich M, Kesler SE, Ewing RC, Hough R, Walshe J (2011) Trace metal nanoparticles in pyrite. Ore Geol Rev 42:32–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Deditius AP, Utsunomiya S, Renock D, Ewing RC, Ramana CV, Becker U, Kesler SE (2008) A proposed new type of arsenian pyrite: Composition, nanostructure and geological significance. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 72:2919–2933CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Deol S, Deb M, Large RR, Gilbert S (2012) LA-ICPMS and EPMA studies of pyrite, arsenopyrite and loellingite from the Bhukia-Jagpura gold prospect, southern Rajasthan, India: Implications for ore genesis and gold remobilization. Chem Geol 326-327:72–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Egozcue JJ, Pawlowsky-Glahn V, Mateu-Figueras G, Barcelo-Vidal C (2003) Isometric logratio transformations for compositional data analysis. Math Geol 35:279–300CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Einaudi MT (1968) Copper zoning in pyrite from Cerro de Pasco, Peru. Am Mineral 53:1748–1752Google Scholar
  24. Franchini M, McFarlane C, Maydagán L, Reich M, Lentz DR, Meinert L, Bouhier V (2015) Trace metals in pyrite and marcasite from the Agua Rica porphyry-high sulfidation epithermal deposit, Catamarca, Argentina: Textural features and metal zoning at the porphyry to epithermal transition. Ore Geol Rev 66:366–387CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Franklin JM, Gibson HL, Jonasson IR, Galley AG (2005) Volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits. Econ Geol 100th Ann Vol: 523–560Google Scholar
  26. Fu S, Gu X, Wang Q, Liu X (2003) Lead isotopic geochemistry and its bearing on genesis of the Huize Pb-Zn deposit, Yunnan, South China. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 67:A107Google Scholar
  27. Gadd MG, Layton-Matthews D, Peter JM, Paradis SJ (2016) The world-class Howard’s Pass SEDEX Zn-Pb district, Selwyn Basin, Yukon. Part I: trace element compositions of pyrite record input of hydrothermal, diagenetic, and metamorphic fluids to mineralization. Miner Deposita 51:319–342CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Gao J-F, Jackson SE, Dubé B, Kontak DJ, De Souza S (2015) Genesis of the Canadian Malartic, Côté Gold, and Musselwhite gold deposits: Insights from LA-ICP-MS element mapping of pyrite. In: Dubé B, Mercier-Langevin P (eds) Targeted Geoscience Initiative 4: Contributions to the Understanding of Precambrian Lode Gold Deposits and Implications for Exploration. Geol Surv Can Open File 7852, pp 157–175Google Scholar
  29. Gao S, Yang J, Zhou L, Li M, Hu Z, Guo J, Yuan H, Gong H, Xiao G, Wei J (2011) Age and growth of the Archean Kongling terrain, South China, with emphasis on 3.3 Ga granitoid gneisses. Am J Sci 311:153–182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Genna D, Gaboury D (2015) Deciphering the hydrothermal evolution of a VMS system by LA-ICP-MS using trace elements in pyrite: An example from the Bracemac-McLeod deposits, Abitibi, Canada, and implications for exploration. Econ Geol 110:2087–2108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. George LL, Cook NJ, Ciobanu CL (2016) Partitioning of trace elements in co-crystallized sphalerite–galena–chalcopyrite hydrothermal ores. Ore Geol Rev 77:97–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Goldhaber MB, Kaplan IR (1982) Controls and consequences of sulfate reduction rates in recent marine sediments. Acid Sulfate Weathering 119:19–36Google Scholar
  33. Gregory DD, Large RR, Bath AB, Steadman JA, Wu S, Danyushevsky L, Bull SW, Holden P, Ireland TR (2016) Trace Element Content of Pyrite from the Kapai Slate, St. Ives Gold District, Western Australia. Econ Geol 111:1297–1320CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Gregory DD, Large RR, Halpin JA, Baturina EL, Lyons TW, Wu S, Danyushevsky L, Sack PJ, Chappaz A, Maslennikov VV (2015) Trace element content of sedimentary pyrite in black shales. Econ Geol 110:1389–1410CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Gregory DD, Lyons TW, Large RR, Jiang G, Stepanov AS, Diamond CW, Figueroa MC, Olin P (2017) Whole rock and discrete pyrite geochemistry as complementary tracers of ancient ocean chemistry: An example from the Neoproterozoic Doushantuo Formation, China. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 216:201–220CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Griffin WL, Ashley PM, Ryan CG, Sie SH, Suter GF (1991) Pyrite geochemistry in the North Arm epithermal Ag-Au deposit, Queensland, Australia; a proton-microprobe study. Can Miner 29:185–198Google Scholar
  37. Höll R, Kling M, Schroll E (2007) Metallogenesis of germanium—A review. Ore Geol Rev 30:145–180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Halicz L, Günther D (2004) Quantitative analysis of silicates using LA-ICP-MS with liquid calibration. J Anal At Spectrom 19:1539–1545CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Han RS, Liu CQ, Huang ZL, Ma DY, Li Y, Hu B, Ma GS, Lei L (2004) Fluid inclusions of calcite and sources of ore-forming fluids in the Huize Zn-Pb-(Ag-Ge) district, Yunnan, China. Acta Geol Sin 78:583–591Google Scholar
  40. Han RS, Liu CQ, Huang ZL, Chen J, Ma DY, Lei L, Ma GS (2007) Geological features and origin of the Huize carbonate-hosted Zn-Pb-(Ag) district, Yunnan, South China. Ore Geol Rev 31:360–383CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Hu R-Z, Zhou M-F (2012) Multiple Mesozoic mineralization events in South China—an introduction to the thematic issue. Miner Deposita 47:579–588CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Hu RZ, Fu SL, Huang Y, Zhou MF, Fu SH, Zhao CH, Wang YJ, Bi XW, Xiao JF (2017) The giant South China Mesozoic low-temperature metallogenic domain: Reviews and a new geodynamic model. J Asian Earth Sci 137:9–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Huang X-W, Boutroy É, Makvandi S, Beaudoin G, Corriveau L, De Toni AF (2018) Trace element composition of iron oxides from IOCG and IOA deposits: relationship to hydrothermal alteration and deposit subtypes. Miner Deposita.
  44. Huang Z, Li W, Chen J, Xu D, Han R, Liu C (2001) Carbon and oxygen isotope geochemistry of the Huize superlarge Pb-Zn Ore deposits in Yunnan Province. Geotecton Metallogen 28:53–59 (in Chinese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  45. Huang ZL, Chen J, Han RS, Li WB, Liu CQ, Zhang ZL, Ma DY, Gao DR, Yang HL (2004) Geochemistry and ore-formation of the Huize giant lead-zinc deposit, Yunnan, Province, China: Discussion on the relationship between Emeishan flood basalts and lead-zinc mineralization. Geological Publishing House, Beijing (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  46. Huang ZL, Li WB, Chen J, Han RS, Liu CQ, Xu C, Guan T (2003) Carbon and oxygen isotope constraints on mantle fluid involvement in the mineralization of the Huize super-large Pb-Zn deposits, Yunnan Province, China. J Geochem Explor 78:637–642CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Huston DL, Sie SH, Suter GF, Cooke DR, Both RA (1995) Trace elements in sulfide minerals from eastern Australian volcanic-hosted massive sulfide deposits; Part I, Proton microprobe analyses of pyrite, chalcopyrite, and sphalerite, and Part II, Selenium levels in pyrite; comparison with delta 34S values and implications for the source of sulfur in volcanogenic hydrothermal systems. Econ Geol 90:1167–1196CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Jorgensen BB, Isaksen MF, Jannasch HW (1992) Bacterial sulfate reduction above 100 degrees Celsius in deep-sea hydrothermal vent sediments. Science 258:1756–1758CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Keith M, Häckel F, Haase KM, Schwarz-Schampera U, Klemd R (2016) Trace element systematics of pyrite from submarine hydrothermal vents. Ore Geol Rev 72:728–745CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Kesler SE, Reich MH (2006) Precambrian Mississippi Valley-type deposits: relation to changes in composition of the hydrosphere and atmosphere. Geol Soc Am Memoir 198:185–204Google Scholar
  51. Kiyosu Y (1980) Chemical reduction and sulfur-isotope effects of sulfate by organic matter under hydrothermal conditions. Chem Geol 30:47–56CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Koglin N, Frimmel HE, Minter WL, Brätz H (2010) Trace-element characteristics of different pyrite types in Mesoarchaean to Palaeoproterozoic placer deposits. Miner Deposita 45:259–280CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Large RR, Danyushevsky L, Hollit C, Maslennikov V, Meffre S, Gilbert S, Bull S, Scott R, Emsbo P, Thomas H (2009) Gold and trace element zonation in pyrite using a laser imaging technique: implications for the timing of gold in orogenic and Carlin-style sediment-hosted deposits. Econ Geol 104:635–668CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Large RR, Gemmell JB, Paulick H, Huston DL (2001) The alteration box plot: A simple approach to understanding the relationship between alteration mineralogy and lithogeochemistry associated with volcanic-hosted massive sulfide deposits. Econ Geol 96:957–971CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Large RR, Halpin JA, Danyushevsky LV, Maslennikov VV, Bull SW, Long JA, Gregory DD, Lounejeva E, Lyons TW, Sack PJ (2014) Trace element content of sedimentary pyrite as a new proxy for deep-time ocean–atmosphere evolution. Earth Planet Sci Lett 389:209–220CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Large RR, Mukherjee I, Gregory DD, Steadman JA, Maslennikov VV, Meffre S (2017) Ocean and atmosphere geochemical proxies derived from trace elements in marine pyrite: Implications for ore genesis in sedimentary basins. Econ Geol 112:423–450CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Leach DL, Bradley D, Lewchuk MT, Symons DT, de Marsily G, Brannon J (2001) Mississippi Valley-type lead–zinc deposits through geological time: implications from recent age-dating research. Miner Deposita 36:711–740CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Leach DL, Bradley DC, Huston D, Pisarevsky SA, Taylor RD, Gardoll SJ (2010) Sediment-hosted lead-zinc deposits in Earth history. Econ Geol 105:593–625CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Li B (2010) The Study of Fluid Inclusions Geochemistry and Tectonic Geochemistry of Lead-Zinc Deposits: Taking Huize and Songliang Lead-Zinc Deposits for Examples, in the Northeast of Yunnan Province, China. PhD thesis, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming (in Chinese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  60. Li W, Huang Z, Yin M (2007a) Dating of the Giant Huize Zn-Pb Ore Field of Yunnan Province, Southwest China: Constraints from the Sm-Nd System in Hydrothermal Calcite. Resour Geol 57:90–97CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Li W, Huang Z, Yin M (2007b) Isotope geochemistry of the Huize Zn-Pb ore field, Yunnan Province, Southwestern China: Implication for the sources of ore fluid and metals. Geochem J 41:65–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Li WB, Huang ZL, Qi L (2007c) REE geochemistry of sulfides from the Huize Zn-Pb ore field, Yunnan Province: implication for the sources of ore-forming metals. Acta Geol Sin 81:442–449CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Li XB, Huang ZL, Li W, Zhang ZL, Yan ZF (2006) Sulfur isotopic compositions of the Huize super-large Pb–Zn deposit, Yunnan Province, China: implications for the source of sulfur in the ore-forming fluids. J Geochem Explor 89:227–230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Li Z, Xue C, Wu Y, Dong X, Wang S, Chen J (2015) The nappe-hosted Hoshbulak MVT Zn–Pb deposit, Xinjiang, China: A review of the geological, elemental and stable isotopic constraints. Ore Geol Rev 70:47–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Liu HC, Lin WD (1999) Study on the law of Pb-Zn-Ag ore deposit in Northeast Yunnan, China. Yunnan University Press, Kunming, pp 1–468 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  66. Loftus-Hills G, Solomon M (1967) Cobalt, nickel and selenium in sulphides as indicators of ore genesis. Miner Deposita 2:228–242CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Meng YM (2014) Application of Ge isotopes to mineral deposits: Examples from the Wulantuga Ge deposit of Inner Mongolia, the Huize and other Pb-Zn deposits of SW China. PhD thesis, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, pp 1–142 (in Chinese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  68. Meng Y-M, Hu R-Z (2018) Minireview: Advances in Germanium Isotope Analysis by Multiple Collector-Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry. Anal Lett 51:627–647CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Meng Y-M, Hu R-Z, Huang X-W, Gao J-F, Qi L, Lyu C (2018) The relationship between volcanic-associated massive sulfide mineralization and porphyry-skarn Mo mineralization in the Laochang deposit, SW China: Constraints from Re-Os isotopes, sulfur isotopes and in situ trace elements of pyrite. J Geochem Explor 194:218–238CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Meng Y-M, Qi H-W, Hu R-Z (2015) Determination of germanium isotopic compositions of sulfides by hydride generation MC-ICP-MS and its application to the Pb–Zn deposits in SW China. Ore Geol Rev 65:1095–1109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Mookherjee A, Philip R (1979) Distribution of copper, cobalt and nickel in ores and host-rocks, Ingladhal, Karnataka, India. Miner Deposita 14:33–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Mukherjee I, Large R (2017) Application of pyrite trace element chemistry to exploration for SEDEX style Zn-Pb deposits: McArthur Basin, Northern Territory, Australia. Ore Geol Rev 81:1249–1270CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Ohmoto H (1992) Biogeochemistry of sulfur and the mechanisms of sulfide-sulfate mineralization in Archean oceans. In: Schidlowski M, Golubic S, Kimberley MM, Mckirdy DM, Trudinger PA (eds) Early Organic Evolution: Implications for Mineral and Energy Resources. Springer-Verlag, pp 378–397Google Scholar
  74. Ohmoto H (1996) Formation of volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits: the Kuroko perspective. Ore Geol Rev 10:135–177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Ohmoto H, Rye RO (1979) Isotopes of sulfur and carbon. Geochemistry of hydrothermal ore deposits. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  76. Orr WL (1974) Changes in sulfur content and isotopic ratios of sulfur during petroleum maturation; study of big horn basin paleozoic oils. AAPG Bull 58:2295–2318Google Scholar
  77. Pačevski A, Moritz R, Kouzmanov K, Marquardt K, Živković P, Cvetković L (2012) Texture and composition of Pb-bearing pyrite from the Čoka Marin polymetallic deposit, Serbia, controlled by nanoscale inclusions. Can Miner 50:1–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Qiu YM, Gao S, McNaughton NJ, Groves DI, Ling W (2000) First evidence of >3.2 Ga continental crust in the Yangtze craton of south China and its implications for Archean crustal evolution and Phanerozoic tectonics. Geology 28:11–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Reich M, Deditius A, Chryssoulis S, Li J-W, Ma C-Q, Parada MA, Barra F, Mittermayr F (2013) Pyrite as a record of hydrothermal fluid evolution in a porphyry copper system: A SIMS/EMPA trace element study. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 104:42–62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Reich M, Kesler SE, Utsunomiya S, Palenik CS, Chryssoulis SL, Ewing RC (2005) Solubility of gold in arsenian pyrite. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 69:2781–2796CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Reich M, Simon AC, Deditius A, Barra F, Chryssoulis S, Lagas G, Tardani D, Knipping J, Bilenker L, Sánchez-Alfaro P (2016) Trace element signature of pyrite from the Los Colorados iron oxide-apatite (IOA) deposit, Chile: a missing link between Andean IOA and iron oxide copper-gold systems? Econ Geol 111:743–761CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Reid A, Wilson CJ, Shun L, Pearson N, Belousova E (2007) Mesozoic plutons of the Yidun Arc, SW China: U/Pb geochronology and Hf isotopic signature. Ore Geol Rev 31:88–106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Revan MK, Genç Y, Maslennikov VV, Maslennikova SP, Large RR, Danyushevsky LV (2014) Mineralogy and trace-element geochemistry of sulfide minerals in hydrothermal chimneys from the Upper-Cretaceous VMS deposits of the eastern Pontide orogenic belt (NE Turkey). Ore Geol Rev 63:129–149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Rieger AA, Marschik R, Díaz M, Hölzl S, Chiaradia M, Akker B, Spangenberg JE (2010) The hypogene iron oxide copper-gold mineralization in the Mantoverde district, Northern Chile. Econ Geol 105:1271–1299CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Rusk B, Oliver N, Cleverley J, Blenkinsop T, Zhang D, Williams P, Habermann P (2010) Physical and chemical characteristics of the Ernest Henry iron oxide copper gold deposit, Australia; implications for IOCG genesis. In: Porter TM (ed) Hydrothermal Iron Oxide Copper-Gold & Related Deposits: A Global Perspective, vol 3. PGC Publishing, Adelaide, pp 1–18Google Scholar
  86. Schardt C, Cooke DR, Gemmell JB, Large RR (2001) Geochemical modeling of the zoned footwall alteration pipe, Hellyer volcanic-hosted massive sulfide deposit, Western Tasmania, Australia. Econ Geol 96:1037–1054Google Scholar
  87. Sillitoe RH (2010) Porphyry copper systems. Econ Geol 105:3–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Soltani Dehnavi A, Lentz DR, McFarlane CRM (2015) LA-ICP-MS analysis of volatile trace elements in massive sulphides and host rocks of selected VMS deposits of the Bathurst mining camp, New Brunswick: Methodology and application to exploration. In: Peter JM, Mercier-Langevin P (eds) Targeted Geoscience Initiative 4: Contributions to the Understanding of Volcanogenic Massive Sulphide Deposit Genesis and Exploration Methods Development. Geol Surv Can Open File 7853, pp 59–80Google Scholar
  89. Sun WH, Zhou MF, Gao JF, Yang YH, Zhao XF, Zhao JH (2009) Detrital zircon U-Pb geochronological and Lu-Hf isotopic constraints on the Precambrian magmatic and crustal evolution of the western Yangtze Block, SW China. Precambrian Res 172:99–126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Tanner D, Henley RW, Mavrogenes JA, Holden P (2016) Sulfur isotope and trace element systematics of zoned pyrite crystals from the El Indio Au–Cu–Ag deposit, Chile. Contrib Mineral Petrol 171:1–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Taylor BE (1986) Magmatic volatiles: isotope variation of C, H and S. In: Reviews in mineralogy, vol 16. Stable isotopes on high temperature geological process. Miner Soc Amer, pp 185–226Google Scholar
  92. Thomas HV, Large RR, Bull SW, Maslennikov V, Berry RF, Fraser R, Froud S, Moye R (2011) Pyrite and pyrrhotite textures and composition in sediments, laminated quartz veins, and reefs at Bendigo gold mine, Australia: insights for ore genesis. Econ Geol 106:1–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Titley SR (1996) Characteristics of high temperature, carbonate-hosted replacement ores and some comparisons with Mississippi Valley-type ores. Soc Econ Geol Spec Publ 4:244–254Google Scholar
  94. Verbovšek T (2011) A comparison of parameters below the limit of detection in geochemical analyses by substitution methods. Mater Geoenviron 58:393–404Google Scholar
  95. Wang C, Yang L, Bagas L, Evans NJ, Chen J, Du B (2018) Mineralization processes at the giant Jinding Zn–Pb deposit, Lanping Basin, Sanjiang Tethys Orogen: Evidence from in situ trace element analysis of pyrite and marcasite. Geol J 53:1279–1294CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Williams PJ, Barton MD, Johnson DA, Fontbote L, De Haller A, Mark G, Oliver NHS, Marschik R (2005) Iron oxide copper-gold deposits: geology, space-time distribution and possible modes of origin. Econ Geol 100th Ann Vol: 371–405Google Scholar
  97. Wohlgemuth-Ueberwasser CC, Viljoen F, Petersen S, Vorster C (2015) Distribution and solubility limits of trace elements in hydrothermal black smoker sulfides: An in-situ LA-ICP-MS study. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 159:16–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Yan D-P, Zhou M-F, Song H-L, Wang X-W, Malpas J (2003) Origin and tectonic significance of a Mesozoic multi-layer over-thrust system within the Yangtze Block (South China). Tectonophysics 361:239–254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Ye L, Cook NJ, Ciobanu CL, Liu Y, Zhang Q, Liu T, Gao W, Yang Y, Danyushevskiy L (2011) Trace and minor elements in sphalerite from base metal deposits in South China: A LA-ICPMS study. Ore Geol Rev 39:188–217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Zhang CQ, Mao JW, Liu F, Li HM (2005a) K-Ar dating of altered clay minerals from Huize Pb-Zn deposit in Yunnan Province and its geological significance. Mineral Deps 24:317–324 (in Chinese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  101. Zhang P, Huang X-W, Cui B, Wang B-C, Yin Y-F, Wang J-R (2016) Re-Os isotopic and trace element compositions of pyrite and origin of the Cretaceous Jinchang porphyry Cu-Au deposit, Heilongjiang Province, NE China. J Asian Earth Sci 129:67–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Zhang Z, Huang Z, Guan T, Yan Z, Gao D (2005b) Study on the multi-sources of ore-forming materials and ore-forming fluids in the Huize lead-zinc ore deposit. Chin J Geochem 24:243–252CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Zhao JH, Zhou MF, Yan DP, Zheng JP, Li JW (2011) Reappraisal of the ages of Neoproterozoic strata in South China: No connection with the Grenvillian orogeny. Geology 39:299–302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Zheng Y, Zhang L, Y-j C, Hollings P, H-y C (2013) Metamorphosed Pb–Zn–(Ag) ores of the Keketale VMS deposit, NW China: evidence from ore textures, fluid inclusions, geochronology and pyrite compositions. Ore Geol Rev 54:167–180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Zhou C, Wei C, Guo J, Li C (2001) The source of metals in the Qilinchang Zn-Pb deposit, Northeastern Yunnan, China: Pb-Sr isotope constraints. Econ Geol 96:583–598CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Zhou JC, Wang XL, Qiu JS (2009) Geochronology of Neoproterozoic mafic rocks and sandstones from northeastern Guizhou, South China: Coeval arc magmatism and sedimentation. Precambrian Res 170:27–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Zhou M-F, Arndt NT, Malpas J, Wang CY, Kennedy AK (2008) Two magma series and associated ore deposit types in the Permian Emeishan large igneous province, SW China. Lithos 103:352–368CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Zhou MF, Yan DP, Kennedy AK, Li Y, Ding J (2002) SHRIMP U-Pb zircon geochronological and geochemical evidence for Neoproterozoic arc-magmatism along the western margin of the Yangtze Block, South China. Earth Planet Sci Lett 196:51–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Zwahlen C, Cioldi S, Wagner T, Rey R, Heinrich C (2014) The porphyry Cu-(Mo-Au) deposit at Altar (Argentina): Tracing gold distribution by vein mapping and LA-ICP-MS mineral analysis. Econ Geol 109:1341–1358CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Austria, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Ore Deposit Geochemistry, Institute of GeochemistryChinese Academy of SciencesGuiyangChina
  2. 2.College of Earth and Planetary SciencesUniversity of Chinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina
  3. 3.Département des Sciences de la Terre et de l’AtmosphèreUniversité du Québec à Montréal (UQÀM)MontréalCanada
  4. 4.Coopérative de Solidarité GÉOCOOPMontréalCanada

Personalised recommendations