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Mineralogy and Petrology

, Volume 113, Issue 3, pp 369–391 | Cite as

The origin of the carbonate-hosted Huize Zn–Pb–Ag deposit, Yunnan province, SW China: constraints from the trace element and sulfur isotopic compositions of pyrite

  • Yu-Miao Meng
  • Rui-Zhong HuEmail author
  • Xiao-Wen Huang
  • Jian-Feng Gao
  • Christian Sasseville
Original Paper
  • 149 Downloads

Abstract

The Huize Zn–Pb–Ag deposit in SW China has an ore reserve in excess of 5 Mt. with an ore grade of ≥25 wt% Zn + Pb and 46–100 g/t Ag. This deposit is hosted in Carboniferous dolostone and limestone. Sulfide mineralization is dominated by sphalerite, galena, and pyrite. Four types of pyrite (Py1 to Py4) are temporally and spatially related to mineralization distinguished on the basis of textural features and mineral associations. Pyrite 1 to 3 corresponds to the pyrite-sphalerite sub-stage, whereas Py4 corresponds to sphalerite-galena-pyrite sub-stage. Pyrite 1 shows zoned texture composed of an inclusion-rich core and an inclusion-free rim, whereas Py2, Py3, and Py4 show replacement relic or overgrowth textures. The zoned texture in Py1 was formed by multiple stages of ore fluids, whereas replacement relic texture in Py2 to Py4 was formed by replacement of pyrite by late Pb-Zn-rich fluids. Trace element variation in pyrite results from a combination of mineral inclusions, co-precipitating minerals, and various fluid compositions. Sphalerite, pyrite, and galena have δ34S values of 10.4–23.5‰, suggesting that sulfur was probably derived from the thermochemical reduction of marine sulfates. The Huize pyrite has Co and Ni concentrations (0.02–9.5 ppm and 0.08–143 ppm, respectively) and Co/Ni ratios (~0.01–2.63) similar to pyrite from sedimentary exhalative deposits, submarine hydrothermal vents, and sedimentary pyrite, which may be due to pyrite precipitation from low-temperature (<~250 °C), basin brines or seawater. The Co/Ni ratios of the Huize pyrite are lower than those (~0.2–7.2) of pyrite from Mississippi Valley-type Zn-Pb deposits. The Huize pyrite has Co and Ni contents lower than those associated with volcanogenic massive sulfide, iron oxide copper gold, and porphyry Cu deposits, arguing against the involvement of a magmatic/volcanic component and a direct genetic link between Permian Emeishan basalts and Pb-Zn mineralization. Combining with fluid inclusion temperatures and silver grade, we define the Huize deposit as a transitional type between Mississippi Valley-type and high-temperature carbonate-replacement Zn-Pb deposits.

Keywords

Trace elements Sulfur isotopes Pyrite LA-ICP-MS Huize Zn–Pb–Ag MVT deposits 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This research was supported jointly by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (41503045 and 41673050), the National “973” Program of China (2014CB440906), the CAS/SAFEA International Partnership Program (KZZD-EW-TZ-20), and CAS “Light of West China” Program to YMM. Thanks are given to Gu Jing and Liang Chong for sulfur isotope and LA-ICP-MS trace element analyses, respectively. Ge Wanting and Liu Yan are thanked for micro-drill sampling for sulfur isotope analyses. Thanks are given to Luke George and two anonymous reviewers for constructive comments on the early version, and M.A.T.M. Broekmans, Luca Bindi, and Lhiric Agoyaoy for editorial handling.

Supplementary material

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Austria, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Ore Deposit Geochemistry, Institute of GeochemistryChinese Academy of SciencesGuiyangChina
  2. 2.College of Earth and Planetary SciencesUniversity of Chinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina
  3. 3.Département des Sciences de la Terre et de l’AtmosphèreUniversité du Québec à Montréal (UQÀM)MontréalCanada
  4. 4.Coopérative de Solidarité GÉOCOOPMontréalCanada

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