Mineralogy and Petrology

, Volume 113, Issue 1, pp 39–60 | Cite as

Mantle source heterogeneity in subduction zones: constraints from elemental and isotope (Sr, Nd, and Pb) data on Vulcano Island, Aeolian Archipelago, Italy

  • Laura PinarelliEmail author
  • Anna Gioncada
  • Bruno Capaccioni
  • Orlando Vaselli
  • Hilary Downes
Original Paper


Vulcano is part of the Aeolian volcanic arc in the southern Tyrrhenian Sea. Its products were emplaced through multiple episodes of edifice building and collapse since about 120 ka B.P. to present. A major discontinuity in the activity occurred after about 28 ka, while the focus of volcanism moved from SE to NW. The older products are basalts to shoshonites, and have lower K2O than the younger ones, shoshonites to rhyolites. Between these two groups, Lentia latites-rhyolites, Spiaggia Lunga basalts, and Quadrara shoshonite-trachytes, erupted along the western side of Vulcano Island. The Spiaggia Lunga basalts (i) are the most primitive magmas erupted at Vulcano after 28 ka (ii) mark the change between older and younger phases, and (iii) overlap geochemically with a monzogabbroic intrusion of similar age. This work focuses on the Spiaggia Lunga products, discussed within a large dataset of geochemical and radiogenic isotope analyses on the entire Vulcano sequence. Older products have more primitive geochemical and isotope characteristics, and lower incompatible element contents, than younger ones. The Spiaggia Lunga basalts exhibit intermediate geochemical characteristics between the older and the younger groups, and can likely be regarded as a third magmatic phase, which represents a distinct mantle reservoir active during the magmatic history of Vulcano. Significant variations of Sr, Nd, and Pb isotope ratios, and isotopic disequilibrium between phenocrysts and groundmass, are present among the Vulcano products. This variability suggests crustal assimilation in shallow-level magma chambers, which also accounts for the formation of evolved products by combined assimilation and fractional crystallization, particularly in the younger series. Considering only the mafic products, incompatible element patterns with high LILE/HFSE and enriched signatures of Sr, Nd, and Pb isotope ratios, indicate enriched mantle sources. Besides, chemical and isotope variability among older, younger, and Spiaggia Lunga mafic rocks, suggests an origin from geochemically diverse primary melts, derived from distinct mantle reservoirs. Their parent magmas, based on geochemical and isotope patterns, were from both MORB- and OIB-type mantle sources, subject to variable degrees of metasomatism by subducted sediments.


Aeolian Islands Vulcano Geochemistry Sr-Nd-Pb isotopes Shoshonite series petrogenesis 



In 2016 two colleagues and friends of ours passed away. Aldo Del Moro was part of our team when the study of Vulcano started in the late nineties. Over the years he promoted our research with his thoughts, his suggestions, and his laugh. Bruno Capaccioni was in the field with OV when the enclaves were collected. After many years of discussion about the organization and writing of this paper, now that it is ready to be submitted, he is not with us anymore.

We wish to dedicate this paper to their memory. Aldo and Bruno R.I.P., we will miss you.

We are grateful to S. Agostini for his assistance during the preparation and measurements of the Pb isotopes. M. Thirlwall is thanked for the Sr and Nd laboratory facilities at the Royal Holloway - University of London (UK).

We wish to thank A. Peccerillo for the critical reading of an early version of the manuscript, and M. Roden and Sz. Harangi for their accurate and constructive reviews.

This work was financially supported by the Laboratory of Stable Isotopes of the Institute of Geosciences and Earth Resources, National Research Council (IGG-CNR) of Florence, and by “Fondi di Ateneo (ex 60%)” of the University of Pisa, Ministry of Research and Education (MIUR).

Supplementary material

710_2018_640_MOESM2_ESM.xlsx (50 kb)
ESM 1 Electron microprobe analyses of rock-forming minerals in samples from the Spiaggia Lunga area (XLSX 50 kb)
710_2018_640_MOESM1_ESM.xlsx (23 kb)
ESM 2 Major, trace elements, and Sr–Nd-Pb isotope ratios of Vulcano whole rocks and enclaves (XLSX 23 kb)
710_2018_640_MOESM3_ESM.docx (31 kb)
ESM 3 Sr–Nd-Pb isotope ratios of separate minerals and relative whole rocks from Vulcano (DOCX 31 kb)
710_2018_640_MOESM4_ESM.pdf (55 kb)
ESM 4 Zr/Th vs. Ba (ppm) plot reporting whole rocks and enclaves of Vulcano from the present paper (Table 2 and ESM_2). Symbols as in Fig. 3. Variations of Zr/Th, which remains nearly constant during shallow processes, highlight source heterogeneity. Conversely, variations of Ba reflect shallow level evolution (PDF 54 kb)


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© Springer-Verlag GmbH Austria, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.National Research Council, Institute of Geosciences and Earth ResourcesSection of FlorenceFlorenceItaly
  2. 2.Department of Earth SciencesUniversity of PisaPisaItaly
  3. 3.Department of Biological, Geological and Environmental SciencesUniversity of BolognaBolognaItaly
  4. 4.Department of Earth SciencesUniversity of FlorenceFlorenceItaly
  5. 5.Department of Earth and Planetary SciencesBirkbeck CollegeLondonUK

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