Advertisement

Kimberlite emplacement and mantle sampling through time at A154N kimberlite volcano, Diavik Diamond Mine: lessons from the deep

  • Stephen W. Moss
  • Alan Kobussen
  • William Powell
  • Kari Pollock
Original Paper
  • 81 Downloads

Abstract

The Diavik Diamond Mine in the NWT of Canada has produced in excess of 100 million carats from 3 kimberlite pipes since mining commenced in 2002. Here, we present new findings from deep (>400 m below surface) mining, sampling and drilling work in the A154N kimberlite volcano that require a revision of previous geological and emplacement models and provide a window into how the sub-continental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) below Diavik was sampled by kimberlite magmas through time. Updated internal geological models feature two volcanic packages interpreted to represent two successive cycles of explosive eruption followed by active and passive sedimentation from a presumed crater-rim, both preceded and followed by intrusions of coherent kimberlite. Contact relationships apparent among the geological units allow for a sequential organization of as many as five temporally-discrete emplacement events. Representative populations of mantle minerals extracted from geological units corresponding to four of the emplacement events at A154N are analyzed for major and trace elements, and provide insights into the whether or not kimberlites randomly sample from the mantle. Two independent geothermometers using clinopyroxene and garnet data indicate similar source depths for clinopyroxenes and G9 garnets (130–160 km), and suggest deeper sampling with time for both clinopyroxene and garnets. Harzburgite is limited to 110–160 km, and appears more prevalent in early, low-volume events. Variable ratios of garnet parageneses from the same depth horizons suggest random sampling by passing magmas, but deeper garnet sampling through time suggests early preferential sampling of shallow/depleted SCLM. Evaluations of Ti, Zr, Y and Ga over the range of estimated depths support models of the SCLM underlying the central Slave terrane.

Keywords

Sub-continental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) Kimberlite Geothermobarometry Emplacement Clinopyroxene Garnet 

Notes

Acknowledgements

Thanks to the organisers of the 11th International Kimberlite Conference for the opportunity to present these findings, to the Diavik Diamond Mine geology team for ongoing collaboration, sample collection, and helpful discussions on interpretations. Some excellent laser work was completed by the Rio Tinto Exploration team in Bundoora, Australia and the Center for Ore Deposits and Earth Sciences (CODES) in Hobart, Australia. Thanks to Mineral Services Canada and the University of Stellenbosch for major element microprobe work and support. Thanks to Herman Grütter, Graham Pearson, Paolo Nimis, Maya Kopylova, Tom Nowicki, Kelly Russell, Curtis Brett, Matthew Field, Pat Hayman, and Lucy Porritt for invaluable comment, critique and discussions. Constructive comments by an anonymous reviewer and guest editor Casey M. Hetman are gratefully acknowledged.

References

  1. Amelin Y (1996) Report on Rb-Sr and U-Pb study of kimberlite samples VR44444A through VR44465A. Confidential report for Kennecott Canada Inc., 6 ppGoogle Scholar
  2. Armienti P, Tarquini S (2002) Power law olivine crystal size distributions in lithospheric mantle xenoliths. Lithos 65:273–285CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Arndt NT, Guitreau M, Boullier AM, Le Roex A, Tommasi A, Cordier P, Sobolev A (2010) Olivine, and the origin of Kimberlite. J Petrol 51:573–602CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Aulbach S, Pearson NJ, O'reilly SY, Doyle BJ (2007) Origins of xenolithic eclogites and pyroxenites from the Central Slave Craton, Canada. J Petrol 48:1843–1873CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Aulbach S, Griffin WL, Pearson NJ, O'Reilly SY (2013) Nature and timing of metasomatism in the stratified mantle lithosphere beneath the central Slave craton (Canada). Chem Geol 352:153–169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Barton ES (1996) Rb-Sr Mica age results from the Diavik kimberlite field. Confidential report for Kennecott Canada Inc. 5 ppGoogle Scholar
  7. Bostock M (1998) Mantle stratigraphy and evolution of the Slave province. J Geophys Res–Sol Ea 103:21183–21200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Boullier AM, Nicolas A (1975) Classification of textures and fabrics of peridotite xenoliths from South African kimberlites. Phys Chem Earth 9:467–468 IN7, 469–475CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Brett RC, Russell JK, Moss S (2009) Origin of olivine in kimberlite: phenocryst or impostor? Lithos 112:201–212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Brett RC, Russell JK, Andrews GDM, Jones TJ (2015) The ascent of kimberlite: insights from olivine. Earth Planet Sc Lett 424:119–131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Crawford B, Porrit L, Nowicki TE, Carlson J (2006) Key geological characteristics of the Koala kimberlite, Ekati Diamond Mine, Canada. In: Kimberlite Emplacement Workshop, 8th International Kimberlite Conference. Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, September 7–14, 2006Google Scholar
  12. Creighton S, Stachel T, McLean H, Muehlenbachs K, Simonetti A, Eichenberg D, Luth R (2007) Diamondiferous peridotitic microxenoliths from the Diavik Diamond Mine, NT. Contrib Mineral Petrol 155:541–554CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Creighton S, Stachel T, Eichenberg D, Luth RW (2010) Oxidation state of the lithospheric mantle beneath Diavik diamond mine, central Slave craton, NWT, Canada. Contrib Mineral Petrol 159:645–657CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Downes H (1990) Shear zones in the upper mantle—relation between geochemical enrichment and deformation in mantle peridotites. Geology 18:374–377CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Drury M, Van Roermund HV (1989) Fluid assisted recrystallization in upper mantle peridotite xenoliths from kimberlites. J Petrol 30:133–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Drury MR, Vissers RL, Van der Wal D, Strating EHH (1991) Shear localisation in upper mantle peridotites. Pure Appl Geophys 137:439–460CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Fipke CE, Gurney J, Moore R (1995) Diamond exploration techniques emphasising indicator mineral geochemistry and Canadian example. Bull Geol Surv Can 423Google Scholar
  18. Galloway M, Nowicki T, van Coller B, Mukodzani B, Siemens K, Hetman C, Webb K, Gurney J (2009) Constraining kimberlite geology through integration of geophysical, geological and geochemical methods: a case study of the Mothae kimberlite, northern Lesotho. Lithos 112(S1):130–141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Griffin W, Doyle BJ, Ryan CG, Pearson NJ, O’Reilly SY, Davies R, Kivi K, Van Achterbergh E, Natapov LM (1999) Layered mantle lithosphere in the Lac de Gras area, Slave craton: composition, structure and origin. J Petrol 40:705–727CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Griffin W, O’Reilly SY, Abe N, Aulbach S, Davies RM, Pearson NJ, Doyle BJ, Kivi K (2003) The origin and evolution of Archean lithospheric mantle. Precambrian Res 127:19–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Grütter HS, Gurney JJ, Menzies AH, Winter F (2004) An updated classification scheme for mantle-derived garnet, for use by diamond explorers. Lithos 77:841–857CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Gurney J, Switzer G (1973) The discovery of garnets closely related to diamonds in the Finsch pipe, South Africa. Contrib Mineral Petrol 39:103–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Harte B (1977) Rock nomenclature with particular relation to deformation and recrystallisation textures in olivine-bearing xenoliths. J Geol 85:279–288CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Kennedy CS, Kennedy GC (1976) The equilibrium boundary between graphite and diamond. J Geophys Res 81:2467–2470CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Kopylova MG, Russell JK (2000) Chemical stratification of cratonic lithosphere: constraints from the Northern Slave craton, Canada. Earth Planet Sc Lett 181:71–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Kopylova M, Russell J, Cookenboo H (1999) Petrology of peridotite and pyroxenite xenoliths from the Jericho kimberlite: implications for the thermal state of the mantle beneath the Slave craton, northern Canada. J Petrol 40:79–104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Kopylova MG, Beausoleil Y, Goncharov A, Burgess J, Strand P (2016) Spatial distribution of eclogite in the Slave cratonic mantle: the role of subduction. Tectonophysics 672:87–103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Mather KA, Pearson DG, McKenzie D, Kjarsgaard BA, Priestley K (2011) Constraints on the depth and thermal history of cratonic lithosphere from peridotite xenoliths, xenocrysts and seismology. Lithos 125:729–742CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Menzies M, Murthy VR (1980) Enriched mantle: Nd and Sr isotopes in diopsides from kimberlite nodules. Nature 283:634–636CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Menzies A, Westerlund K, Grütter H, Gurney J, Carlson J, Fung A, Nowicki T (2004) Peridotitic mantle xenoliths from kimberlites on the Ekati Diamond Mine property, N.W.T., Canada: major element compositions and implications for the lithosphere beneath the central Slave craton. Lithos 77:395–412CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Moss S, Russell J (2011) Fragmentation in kimberlite: products and intensity of explosive eruption. Bull Volcanol 73:983–1003CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Moss S, Russell JK, Andrews GDM (2008) Progressive infilling of a kimberlite pipe at Diavik, Northwest Territories, Canada: insights from volcanic facies architecture, textures, and granulometry. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 174:103–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Moss S, Russell JK, Brett RC, Andrews GDM (2009) Spatial and temporal evolution of kimberlite magma at A154N, Diavik, Northwest Territories, Canada. Lithos 112(S1):541–552CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Moss S, Russell JK, Scott Smith BH, Brett RC (2010) Olivine crystal size distributions in kimberlite. Am Mineral 95:527–536CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Moss S, Porritt L, Pollock K, Fomradas G, Stubley M, Eichenberg D, Cutts J (2018) Geology, mineral chemistry and structure of the kimberlites at Diavik Diamond Mine: indicators of cluster-scale cross-fertilization, mantle provenance and pipe morphology. Soc Eco Geo Spc Pub 20:287–318Google Scholar
  36. Nimis P, Taylor WR (2000) Single clinopyroxene thermobarometry for garnet peridotites. Part I. Calibration and testing of a Cr-in-Cpx barometer and an enstatite-in-Cpx thermometer. Contrib Mineral Petrol 139:541–554CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Nowicki T, Crawford B, Dyck D, Carlson J, McElroy R, Oshust P, Helmstaedt H (2004) The geology of kimberlite pipes of the Ekati property, Northwest Territories, Canada. Lithos 76:1–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Padgham W, Fyson W (1992) The slave province: a distinct Archean craton. Can J Earth Sci 29:2072–2086CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Pearson NJ, Griffin WI, Doyle BJ, O'Reilly SY, Van Achtenburg E, Kivi K (1999) Xenoliths from kimberlite pipes of the Lac de Gras area, Slave Craton, Canada. In: Gurney JJ, Richardson SR (eds) Proceedings of the 7th International Kimberlite Conference, the PH Nixon Volume, vol 2. Red Roof Design, Cape Town, pp 644–658Google Scholar
  40. Russell JK, Porritt LA, Lavallee Y, Dingwell DB (2012) Kimberlite ascent by assimilation-fuelled buoyancy. Nature 481:352–356 http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v481/n7381/abs/nature10740.html#supplementary-information CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Ryan CG, Griffin WL, Pearson NJ (1996) Garnet geotherms: pressure–temperature data from Cr-pyrope garnet xenocrysts in volcanic rocks. J Geophys Res–Sol Ea 101:5611–5625CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Sarkar C, Heaman LM, Pearson D (2015) Duration and periodicity of kimberlite volcanic activity in the Lac de Gras kimberlite field, Canada and some recommendations for kimberlite geochronology. Lithos 218:155–166CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Schmidberger S, Heaman L, Simonetti A, Whiteford S (2005) In-situ Pb and Sr and Lu-Hf isotope systematics of mantle eclogites from the Diavik diamond mine, NWT, Canada. Geochim Cosmochim Ac 69(10S):A287Google Scholar
  44. Scott Smith BH, Smith SCS (2009) The economic implications of kimberlite emplacement. Lithos 112:10–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Stubley MP (1998) Bedrock geology of the East Island area, Lac de Gras. Unpublished internal report prepared for Diavik Diamond Mines Inc., 45 ppGoogle Scholar
  46. Tappert R, Stachel T, Harris JW, Shimizu N (2005) Mineral inclusions in diamonds from the Panda kimberlite, Slave Province, Canada. Eur J Mineral 17:423–440CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Winterburn PA, Harte B, Gurney JJ (1990) Peridotite xenoliths from the Jagersfontein kimberlite pipe: I. Primary and primary-metasomatic mineralogy. Geochim Cosmochim Ac 54:329–341CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Yuan H, Romanowicz B (2010) Lithospheric layering in the North American craton. Nature 466:1063–1068CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Ziberna L, Nimis P, Kuzmin D, Malkovets VG (2016) Error sources in single-clinopyroxene thermobarometry and a mantle geotherm for the Novinka kimberlite, Yakutia. Am Mineral 101:2222–2232CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Austria, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Terram Vero Consulting Inc.VancouverCanada
  2. 2.Rio Tinto ExplorationMelbourneAustralia
  3. 3.Diavik Diamond Mines Inc.YellowknifeCanada

Personalised recommendations