Mineralogy and Petrology

, Volume 112, Supplement 1, pp 325–336 | Cite as

The Victor Mine (Superior Craton, Canada): Neoproterozoic lherzolitic diamonds from a thermally-modified cratonic root

  • Thomas Stachel
  • Anetta Banas
  • Sonja Aulbach
  • Karen V. Smit
  • Pamela Wescott
  • Ingrid L. Chinn
  • Julie Kong
Original Paper


The Jurassic Victor kimberlite (Attawapiskat Field) was emplaced into an area of the central Superior Craton that was affected by a lithosphere-scale thermal event at ~1.1 Ga. Victor diamonds formed ca. 400 million years after this event, in a lithospheric mantle characterized by an unusually cool model geotherm (37–38 mW/m2; Hasterok and Chapman 2011). The bulk of Victor diamonds derives from a thin (<10 km thick) layer that is located at about 180 km depth and represents lherzolitic substrates (for 85% of diamonds). Geothermobarometric calculations (average pressure and temperature at the 1 sigma level are 57 ± 2 kbar and 1129 ± 16 °C) coupled with typical fluid metasomatism-associated trace element patterns for garnet inclusions indicate diamond precipitation under sub-solidus (lherzolite + H2O) conditions. This conclusion links the presence of a diamond-rich lherzolitic layer in the lithospheric mantle, just above the depth where ascending melts would freeze, to the unusually low paleogeotherm beneath Attawapiskat, because along an average cratonic geotherm (40 mW/m2) lherzolite in the presence of hydrous fluid would melt at depths >140 km.


Inclusion in diamond Garnet lherzolite Geothermobarometry Nitrogen aggregation Rare earth elements 



We are grateful to Susan Van Patter for helping I.C. with the collection of inclusion-bearing Victor diamonds. Gerhard Brey, Herman Grütter, and Michael Seller are thanked for many helpful discussions. Bruce Kjarsgaard and two anonymous reviewers are thanked for their insightful comments and edits. T.S. acknowledges funding through a Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada Collaborative Research and Development Grant co-sponsored by De Beers Canada Inc., a Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada Discovery Grant, and the Canada Research Chairs programme. De Beers Canada Inc. is thanked for permission to publish.

Supplementary material

710_2018_574_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (147 kb)
ESM 1 (PDF 147 kb)
710_2018_574_MOESM2_ESM.xlsx (44 kb)
ESM 2 (XLSX 44 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Austria, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Earth and Atmospheric SciencesUniversity of AlbertaEdmontonCanada
  2. 2.APEX Geosciences Ltd.EdmontonCanada
  3. 3.Institut für Geowissenschaften, Petrologie und GeochemieGoethe-Universität FrankfurtFrankfurt am MainGermany
  4. 4.Gemological Institute of AmericaNew YorkUSA
  5. 5.De Beers Group Services (Pty) LtdJohannesburgSouth Africa
  6. 6.De Beers – Exploration CanadaTorontoCanada

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