Acta Mechanica

, Volume 230, Issue 1, pp 213–224 | Cite as

Three-dimensional modeling of complex swirling flows in champagne glasses: CFD and flow visualization

  • Fabien BeaumontEmail author
  • Gérard Liger-Belair
  • Guillaume Polidori
Original Paper


The aim of the present study is to propose a reliable tool based on the CFD method which aims to predict the bubble-induced flow patterns in a champagne glass whatever its glass shape or bubbling conditions. This paper presents the various steps of the analysis which is carried out using a CFD commercial code with a 3D multiphase model based on the Eulerian–Lagrangian approach. The VOF multiphase model, coupled with a discrete phase (simulating the presence of ascending bubbles), was used to model the behavior of the liquid phase (the wine), the gaseous phase, and the interface between them. Subroutines were implemented in the 3D CFD code allowing to reproduce the process of bubble ascent dynamics. For this study aimed at qualitatively validating the numerical model, only one glass geometry is studied, and the CFD results are compared with experimental data obtained both by laser tomography and 2D PIV. Numerical simulations allowed us to test some assumptions that would be difficult to corroborate by experimental methods. Finally, the complex topological information deduced from CFD simulations turned out satisfactory and offered a realistic approach of the flow. These facts represent proofs of the predictive potential of the developed numerical tool.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.



This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


  1. 1.
    Phillips, R.: French Wine: A History. Univ. of California Press, California (2016)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Liger-Belair, G.: The physics and chemistry behind the bubbling properties of champagne and sparkling wines: a state-of-the-art review. J. Agric. Food Chem. 53, 2788–2802 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Duteurtre, B.: Le Champagne, de la Tradition à la Science. Tec & Doc Lavoisier, Paris (2010)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Liger-Belair, G.: Effervescence in champagne and sparkling wines: from grape harvest to bubble rise. Eur. Phys. J. Spec. Top. 226, 3–116 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Ottino, J.M.: The Kinematics of Mixing: Stretching, Chaos, and Transport. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (1989)zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Incropera, F.P., DeWitt, D.P., Bergman, T.L., Lavine, A.S.: Fundamentals of Heat and Mass Transfer, 6th edn. Wiley, Hoboken (2006)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Polidori, G., Jeandet, P., Liger-Belair, G.: Bubbles and flow patterns in champagne. Am. Sci. 97, 294–301 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Beaumont, F., Liger-Belair, G., Bailly, Y., Polidori, G.: A synchronized particle image velocimetry and infrared thermography technique applied to convective mass transfer in champagne glasses. Exp. Fluids 57, 85 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Beaumont, F., Liger-Belair, G., Polidori, G.: Unveiling self-organized two-dimensional (2D) convective cells in champagne glasses. J. Food Eng. 188, 58–65 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Beaumont, F., Popa, C., Liger-Belair, G., Polidori, G.: Numerical modeling of bubble-induced flow patterns in champagne glasses. Int. J. Numer. Methods Heat Fluid Flow 24, 563–578 (2014)MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Keating, M.: Accelerating CFD solutions ANSYS Advantage, 48-49 (2011)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Shams, E., Finn, J., Apte, S.V.: A numerical scheme for Euler–Lagrange simulation of bubbly flows in complex systems. Int. J. Numer. Meth. Fluids 67, 1865–1898 (2011)MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Groll, R., Jakirlić, S., Tropea, C.: Comparative study of Euler/Euler and Euler/Lagrange approaches simulating evaporation in a turbulent gas–liquid flow. Int. J. Numer. Meth. Fluids 59, 873–906 (2009)MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Park, I.R., Kim, K.S., Kim, J., Van, S.H.: A volume-of-fluid method for incompressible free surface flows. Int. J. Numer. Meth. Fluids 61, 1331–1362 (2009)MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    VanSintAnnaland, M., Deen, N.G., Kuipers, J.A.M.: Numerical simulation of gas bubbles behaviour using a three-dimensional volume of fluid method. Chem. Eng. Sci. 60, 2999–3011 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Rabha Swapna, S., Buwa Vivek, V.: Volume-of-fluid (VOF) simulations of rise of single/multiple bubbles in sheared liquids. Chem. Eng. Sci. 65, 527–537 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Nikseresht, A.H., Alishahi, M.M., Emdad, H.: Complete flow field computation around an ACV (air-cushion vehicle) using 3D VOF with Lagrangian propagation in computational domain. Comput. Struct. 86, 627–641 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Shi, S.P., Zitney, S.E., Shahnam, M., Syamlal, M., Rogers, W.A.: Modelling coal gasification with CFD and discrete phase method. J. Energy Inst. 79, 217–221 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Patankar, N.A., Joseph, D.D.: Modeling and numerical simulation of particulate flows by the Eulerian–Lagrangian approach. Int. J. Multiph. Flow 27, 1659–1684 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Asnaashari, A., Akbar Akhtari, A., Dehghani, A.A., Bonakdari, H.: Experimental and numerical investigation of the flow field in the gradual transition of rectangular to trapezoidal open channels. Eng. Appl. Comput. Fluid Mech. 10(1), 272–282 (2016)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Abbaspour, A., Kia, S.H.: Numerical investigation of turbulent open channel flow with semi-cylindrical rough beds. KSCE J. Civ. Eng. 18, 2252–2260 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Knight, D.W., Demetriou, J.D.: Open channel flow with varying bed roughness. J. Hydraul. Eng. Hydrol. Sci. Div. 105(9), 1167–1183 (1979)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Herrmann, E., Lihavainen, H., Hyvärinen, A.P., Riipinen, I., Wilck, M., Stratmann, F., Kulmala, M.: Nucleation simulations using the fluid dynamics software FLUENT with the fine particle model FPM. J. Phys. Chem. 110, 12448–12455 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Liger Belair, G., Jeandet, P.: More on the surface state of expanding champagne bubbles rising at intermediate Reynolds and high Peclet numbers. Langmuir 19, 801–808 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Magnaudet, J., Rivero, M., Fabre, J.: Accelerated flows past a rigid sphere or a spherical bubble. Part 1. Steady straining flow. J. Fluid Mech. 284, 97–135 (1995)MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Maxworthy, T., Gnann, C., Kürten, M., Durst, F.: Experiments on the rise of air bubbles in clean viscous liquids. J. Fluid Mech. 321, 421–441 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Perry, A.E., Chong, M.S.: A description of eddying motions and flow patterns using critical-point concepts. Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. 19, 125–155 (1987)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Austria, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Fabien Beaumont
    • 1
    Email author
  • Gérard Liger-Belair
    • 2
  • Guillaume Polidori
    • 1
  1. 1.GRESPIUniversité de ReimsReims Cedex 2France
  2. 2.GSMAUniversité de ReimsReims Cedex 2France

Personalised recommendations