Monatshefte für Chemie - Chemical Monthly

, Volume 150, Issue 11, pp 1903–1910 | Cite as

A rapid pretreatment of PVC products for high-throughput and visual detection of trace heavy metals

  • Zhongqiu Li
  • Kunhao Yang
  • Yueguang Lv
  • Qingnan Wang
  • Chang Li
  • Li WuEmail author
  • Yujian HeEmail author
Original Paper


A novel method, based on modified silver nanoparticles, for high-throughput visual detection of heavy metal ions in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) products was developed including a key pretreatment process in which tetrahydrofuran was used to dissolve PVC powder samples quickly. Heavy metal ions were successfully transferred from THF to the aqueous phase by the liquid–liquid extraction method during the pretreatment procedures. Then, enriched Cu2+, Mn2+, and Cr3+ were detected by three kinds of silver nanoparticles (4-MBA-AgNPs, 4-MBA-MA-AgNPs, and 4-NBT/4-MBA-AgNPs) using naked eyes and microplate reader, respectively. The visual detection limits of Cu2+, Mn2+, and Cr3+ were 1.0 × 10−6 M, 1.0 × 10−7 M, and 1.0 × 10−6 M, while the detection limits of Cu2+, Mn2+, and Cr3+ were 2.5 × 10−8 M, 5.0 × 10−8 M, and 5.0 × 10−8 M using microplate reader, respectively. Apparently, the proposed method could provide a potent means in the practical detection of heavy metal ions in PVC products with advantages of low-cost, rapid, high-throughput, and on-site detection.

Graphic abstract


Polyvinyl chloride Heavy metal ions Colorimetric detection High-throughput Microplate reader 



This work was sponsored by the National key research and development plan (No. 2016YFF0203700), National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51772289, 21778054 and 51972302), State Key Laboratory of Natural and Biomimetic Drugs (No. K20180202), Fusion project of molecular science and education for Institute of Chemistry (No. Y52902HED2), UCAS students’ entrepreneurship research (No. 118900EA12), Beijing Natural Science Foundation (No. 2182083 and 2192058).

Supplementary material

706_2019_2506_MOESM1_ESM.docx (561.7 mb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 575220 kb)


  1. 1.
    Balashova IM, Meco E, Danner RP (2014) Fluid Phase Equilib 366:69Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Iswanto I, Sudarmadji S, Wahyuni ET (2016) J Manusia dan Lingkungan 23:179Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Buchholz BA, Landsberger S (1993) J Environ Sci Health Part A: Toxic/Hazard Subst Environ Eng 28:423Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Sahin CA, Efecinar M, Satiroglu N (2010) J Hazard Mater 176:672Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    He Y, Zhang X (2016) Sens Actuators B 222:320Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Lemos VA, Santos LN, Bezerra MA (2010) J Food Compos Anal 23:277Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Qi YX, Qu ZB, Wang QX (2017) Anal Chim Acta 980:65PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Terrab A, Hernanz D, Heredia FJ (2004) J Agric Food Chem 52:3441PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Hou XY, Chen S, Shun LJ (2015) Spectrochim Acta A 149:103Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Silva MAMD, Frescura VLA, Curtius AJ (2000) Spectrochim Acta B 55:803Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Dian J, Jindřich J, Jelínek I (2017) Monatsh Chem 148:1929Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kanungo BK, Baral M, Sahoo SK (2015) Curr Anal Chem 11:257Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Wang L, Cheng Y, Lamb D (2019) Environ Technol Innov 15:100424Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Fan YC, Chen Y, Wang RP (2017) J Food Compos Anal 62:63Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Guziński M, Lisak G, Kupis J (2013) Anal Chim Acta 791:1PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Khan N, Jeong IS, Hwang IM (2014) Food Chem 147:220PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Yue YL, He Y (2019) Anal Sci 35:159Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Li MJ, Huang XX, Yu HL (2019) Mater Sci Eng C 101:614Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Zhao MX, Yu HL, He Y (2019) Sens Actuators B 283:329Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Huang W, Wang JH, Du JY (2019) Microchim Acta 186:79Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Du JY, Zhao MX, Huang W (2018) Anal Bioanal Chem 410:4519PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Zhou Y, Huang W, He Y (2018) Sens Actuators B 270:187Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Li Q, He Y (2017) Sens Actuators B 243:454Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Zhang M, Liu YQ, Ye BC (2011) Chem Commun 47:11849Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Zhang M, Liu YQ, Ye BC (2012) Chemistry 18:2507PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Gong J, Zhou T, Song D (2010) Sens Actuators B 150:491Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Lee HY, Son H, Lim JM (2010) Analyst 135:2022PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Liu X, Xiang JJ, Tang Y (2012) Anal Chim Acta 745:99PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Mehta VN, Mungara AK, Kailasa SK (2013) Anal Methods 52:4414Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Ravindran A, Mani V, Chandrasekaran N (2011) Talanta 85:533PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Sung YM, Wu SP (2014) Sens Actuators B 197:172Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Wang X, Guo X (2009) Analyst 134:1348PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Wu C, Xiong C, Wang L (2010) Analyst 135:2682PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Zhang Z, Zhang J, Lou T (2012) Analyst 137:400PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Zhou Y, Zhao H, He Y (2011) Colloids Surf A 391:179Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Zhou Y, Zhao H, Li C (2012) Talanta 97:331PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Zhang Z, Zhou Y, Yang JK (2015) NANO 10:1550095Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Qutob M, Asafra A, Nashashibi T (2014) J Environ Prot 5:1104Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Mallampati SR, Lee CH, Park MH (2016) J Mater Cycles Waste Manag 20:91Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Ohata M, Hioki A (2013) Anal Sci 29:239PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Kang S, Zhu J (2013) J Mater Cycles Waste Manag 17:63Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Manabe N, Kawamura K, Toyoda T (1998) J Appl Polym Sci 68:1801Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Suntako R (2015) Mater Lett 158:399Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Ramos SNDC, Xavier ALP, Teodoro FS (2015) Ind Crops Prod 74:357Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Jadav GL, Aswal VK, Singh PS (2015) J Membr Sci 492:95Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Austria, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Chemical SciencesUniversity of Chinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina
  2. 2.State Key Laboratory of Natural and Biomimetic DrugsPeking UniversityBeijingChina
  3. 3.College of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Engineering (CCPE)Hebei University of Science and TechnologyShijiazhuangChina

Personalised recommendations