Monatshefte für Chemie - Chemical Monthly

, Volume 150, Issue 2, pp 183–192 | Cite as

Electrochemical study of adsorption and electrooxidation of 4,4′-biphenol on the glassy carbon electrode: determination of the orientation of adsorbed molecules

  • Hassan Shayani-jamEmail author
Original Paper


Electrochemical oxidation of 4,4′-biphenol has been studied in aqueous solution and acetone/water mixtures using cyclic voltammetry and chronocoulometry. Obtained results show that diffusion and adsorption currents are mixed (weak adsorption). Weak adsorption was studied and proven by various methods. Semi-integral analysis and chronocoulometry were used as effective methods for determining surface coverage (i.e., initial surface excess) from voltammogram and chronocoulogram in the presence of weak adsorption. An initial surface excess (Γ*) was determined to be 0.43 ± 0.02 nmol/cm2 for 4,4′-biphenol and 0.67 ± 0.03 nmol/cm2 for 4,4′-diphenoquinone by semi-integration and confirmed using chronocoulometry. A good agreement was observed between the results suggested by the applied methods. Eventually, the orientation of 4,4′-biphenol and 4,4′-diphenoquinone molecules adsorbed from solution onto the glassy carbon electrode was determined. Comparison of initial surface excess measurements with values calculated for various possible molecular orientations indicates that the dominant orientations of the adsorbed molecules (4,4′-biphenol and 4,4′-diphenoquinone) are edgewise. Calculations were based on covalent and Van der Waals radii as tabulated by Pauling.

Graphical abstract


4,4′-Biphenol Electrochemical oxidation Weak adsorption Semi-integral analysis Edgewise orientation 

Supplementary material

706_2018_2318_MOESM1_ESM.docx (215 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 214 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Austria, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Chemistry, Faculty of ScienceUniversity of ZanjanZanjanIran

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