The G1P genotype is one of the most common among rotaviruses circulating in the last 40 years. Therefore, this genotype is a component of rotavirus vaccines licensed throughout the world. This paper presents the results of a 35-year (1984–2019) observation of the circulation of G1P rotaviruses among children under 14 in one region (Nizhny Novgorod, Russia) without vaccine pressure. Several complementary approaches were used: RNA electropherotyping by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, PCR genotyping, and cDNA sequencing of rotavirus VP4 and VP7 genes. A total of 8375 rotavirus-positive samples were examined, and the proportion of genotype G1P rotaviruses was 39.9% (4.3-98.9%). Two cycles of high circulation activity (1984–1993 and 1993–2007) and one cycle of low activity (2007–2019) were noted. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the presence of rotaviruses of two VP4 gene lineages (P-1 and P-3) and two VP7 gene lineages (sublineages IA, IB, ID, II-B, II-C, and II- E). The prolonged circulation of rotaviruses of only one sublineage (G1-II-E) and then a change of the prevailing sublineage within the G1-II lineage (from E to C) during the active circulation were shown. Since 2011, when the circulation intensity of G1P rotaviruses was low, the appearance of strains of the G1-I lineage and their co-circulation with strains of the G1-II lineage were observed in the population.
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This study was funded by the Russian Federal Service for Surveillance on Consumer Rights Protection and Human Wellbeing as part of a federal program (no. 141-00063-18-00).
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The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
This study was approved by the Ethical Committee of the I.N. Blokhina Nizhny Novgorod Research Institute of Epidemiology and Microbiology of the Russian Federal Service for Surveillance on Consumer Rights Protection and Human Wellbeing.
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Novikova, N.A., Sashina, T.A., Epifanova, N.V. et al. Long-term monitoring of G1P rotaviruses circulating without vaccine pressure in Nizhny Novgorod, Russia, 1984-2019. Arch Virol (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00705-020-04553-2