Complete genome sequence of bovine herpesvirus type 1.1 (BoHV-1.1) Los Angeles (LA) strain and its genotypic relationship to BoHV-1.1 Cooper and more recently isolated wild-type field strains

  • Jean M. d’OffayEmail author
  • Robert W. Fulton
  • R. Eberle
  • Edward J. Dubovi
  • Christopher C. L. Chase
Brief Report


The Cooper and Los Angeles (LA) strains were the two original respiratory strains of bovine herpesvirus type 1.1 (BoHV-1.1) isolated in the 1950s from cattle with infectious bovine rhinotracheitis. We report the complete genome sequence for the BoHV-1.1 LA strain and compare it to the prototype Cooper strain and six wild-type BoHV-1.1 isolates. A nucleotide sequence divergence of 0.74% was noted across the two complete genomes, caused by 19 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) involving 12 genes and insertions/deletions that primarily affected the number of repeats within reiterated repeat regions of the genome. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that Cooper and LA strains are genetically the most ancient strains from which all of the more-recently isolated field strains of BoHV-1.1 evolved.



This research was supported by the Center for Veterinary Health Sciences, funds from the Endowed Chair for Dr. Robert Fulton, and a grant from Novartis Animal Health, Greensboro, NC.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

None of the authors have any personal or financial conflict of interest that would bias the results of this study.


  1. 1.
    d’Offay JM, Mock RE, Fulton RW (1993) Isolation and characterization of encephalitic bovine herpesvirus type 1 isolates from cattle in North America. Am J Vet Res 54:534–539Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    d’Offay JM, Fulton RW, Eberle R (2013) Complete genome sequence of the NVSL BoHV-1.1 Cooper reference strain. Arch Virol 158:1109–1113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    d’Offay JM, Eberle R, Fulton RW, Kirkland PD (2016) Complete genomic sequence and comparative analysis of four genital and respiratory isolates of bovine herpesvirus subtype 1.2b (BiHV-1.2b), including the prototype virus strain K22. Arch Virol 161:3269–3274. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Fulton RW (2009) Bovine respiratory disease research. Anml Hlth Res Rev 10:131–140Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Fulton RW, d’Offay JM, Eberle R (2013) Bovine herpesvirus-1: Comparison and differentiation of vaccine and filed strains based on genomic sequence variation. Vaccine 31:1471–1479CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Fulton RW, d’Offay JM, Dubovi EJ, Eberle R (2016) Bovine herpesvirus-1: Genetic diversity of field strains from cattle with respiratory disease, genital, fetal disease and systemic neonatal disease and their relationship to vaccine strains. Virus Res 223:115–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Madin SH, York CS, McKercher DG (1956) Isolation of the infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus. Science 124:721–722CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    McKercher DG, Moulton JE, Kendrick JW, Saito J (1955) Recent developments on upper respiratory disease of cattle. In: Proc 59th Annual Meeting US Livestock Sanit Assoc, pp 151–167Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    McKercher DG (1959) Infectious bovine rhinotracheitis. Adv Vet Sci Comp Med 5:299–328Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    McKercher DG, Crenshaw GL (1971) Comparative efficacy of intranasally and parenterally administered infectious bovine rhinotracheitis vaccines. J Am Vet Med Assoc 159:1362–1369Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Miller NJ (1955) Infectious necrotic rhinotracheitis in cattle. J Am Vet Med Assoc 126:463–467Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Muylkens B, Thiry J, Kirten P, Schynts F, Thiry E (2007) Bovine herpesvirus 1 infections and bovine rhinotracheitis. Vet Res 38:181–209CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Newman RM, Lamers SL, Weiner B et al (2016) Genome sequencing and analysis of geographically diverse clinical isolates of herpes simplex virus 2. J Virol 89:8219–8232. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Norberg P, Liljeqvist JA, Bergstrom T, Sammons S, Schmid DS, Loparev VN (2006) Complete-genome phylogenetic approach to varicella-zoster virus evolution: genetic divergence and evidence for recombination. J Virol 80:9569–9576. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Norberg P, Tyler S, Severini A, Whitley R, Liljeqvist JÅ, Bergström T (2011) A genome-wide comparative evolutionary analysis of herpes simplex virus type 1 and varicella zoster virus. PLoS One 6(7):e22527. (Epub 2011 Jul 25) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Schwyzer M, Wirth UV, Vogt B, Fraefel C (1994) BICP22 of bovine herpesvirus 1 is encoded by a spliced 1.7 kb RNA which exhibits immediate early and late transcription kinetics. J Gen Virol 75:1703–1711CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Schroeder RJ, Moys MD (1954) An acute upper respiratory infection of dairy cattle. J Am Vet Med Assoc 125:471–472Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Seawright GL (1977) Affect of cell passage on neutralizing properties of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus. In: Proc 81st Ann Meet of U.S.A.H.A., Minneapolis, MN, pp 491–497Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Tyler SD, Peters GA, Grose C, Severini A, Gray MJ, Upton C, Tipples GA (2007) Genomic cartography of varicella-zoster virus: a complete genome-based analysis of strain variability with implications for attenuation and phenotypic differences. Virology 359:447–458CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    York CJ, Schwarz AJF, Estela LA (1957) Isolation and Identification of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus in tissue culture. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 94:740–744. CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Austria, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, Center for Veterinary Health SciencesOklahoma State UniversityStillwaterUSA
  2. 2.Animal Health Diagnostic CenterCornell UniversityIthacaUSA
  3. 3.Department of Veterinary and Biomedical SciencesSouth Dakota State UniversityBrookingsUSA

Personalised recommendations