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Human bocavirus infection in Belgian children with respiratory tract disease

  • Vanessa Verbeke
  • Marijke Reynders
  • Katelijne Floré
  • Wouter Vandewal
  • Sara Debulpaep
  • Kate Sauer
  • Frederik Cardoen
  • Elizaveta PadalkoEmail author
Original Article

Abstract

Human bocavirus (HBoV) has been detected primarily in children with acute lower respiratory tract disease (LRTD), but its occurrence, clinical profile, and role as a causative agent of RTD are not clear. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and the potential clinical relevance of HBoV. Using molecular tests, we tested 1352 nasopharyngeal samples obtained between October 1, 2017 and April 30, 2018 from children up to the age of 16 with RTD for the presence of HBoV DNA and 20 other respiratory pathogens at three different hospitals in Belgium. HBoV was detected in 77 children with a median age of 10.6 months. Consecutive samples were available for 15 HBoV-positive children and showed persistent HBoV positivity in four of them. Monoinfection was observed in six infants. Four of them were born prematurely and were infected during hospitalization at the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Only one of these six monoinfected children was diagnosed with recurrent wheezing due to HBoV. This child was carried to term and had a high viral load. Coinfections, most frequently with rhinovirus (52.1%) and adenovirus (49.3%), were observed in 72 patients. In seventeen of them in which HBoV was present at high viral load or higher viral load than its copathogens, bronchi(oli)tis (n = 8), recurrent wheezing (n = 8) or episodic wheezing (n = 1) were diagnosed. Our results suggest that HBoV infection at high viral load in infants is associated with wheezing (P = 0.013, Cramer’s V = 0.613).

Abbreviations

BPD

Bronchopulmonary dysplasia

CLD

Chronic lung disease

CPAP

Continuous positive airway pressure

Cq

Quantitation cycle

CRP

C-reactive protein

EV

Enterovirus

GI

Gastrointestinal

HAdV

Human adenoviruses

HBoV

Human bocavirus

HCoV-229E

Human coronavirus 229E

HCoV-HKU1

Human coronavirus HKU1

HCoV-NL63

Human coronavirus NL63

HCoV-OC43

Human coronavirus OC43

hMPV

Human metapneumovirus

HRV

Human rhinoviruses

HPeV

Human parechovirus

HPIV

Human parainfluenza viruses

HRSV

Human respiratory syncytial virus

IAV

Human influenza A virus

IBV

Human influenza B virus

LRTD

Lower respiratory tract disease

MP

Mycoplasma pneumoniae

ND

Not detected

NICU

Neonatal intensive care unit

NPS

Nasopharyngeal samples

PICU

Pediatric intensive care unit

RTD

Respiratory tract disease

RTI

Respiratory tract infections

RT-PCR

Real-time PCR

SARI

Severe acute respiratory infection

UH

University Hospital

URTD

Upper respiratory tract disease

WBC

White blood cell count

Notes

Author contributions

VV analyzed and interpreted the laboratory and clinical data for all patients of the three participating hospitals included in this study and wrote this manuscript. The microbiologists MR, KF and WV provided the laboratory data from AZ Sint-Jan and AZ Sint-Lucas Hospital of Bruges and helped with the interpretation of the data. The pediatricians SD, KS and FC provided the clinical data from the Ghent University Hospital, the AZ Sint-Jan and AZ Sint-Lucas Hospital of Bruges, respectively, and helped with the interpretation of the data. The study was supervised and coordinated by professor EP. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Funding

No funding was received for this study.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethics approval and consent to participate

The study was conducted in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki and was approved by the Medical Ethics Committee of the three participating hospitals under Belgian Registration number B670201836996.

Supplementary material

705_2019_4396_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (160 kb)
Online Resource 1 Protocol for DNA extraction and real-time PCR amplification (pdf, 162 kB) (PDF 160 kb)
705_2019_4396_MOESM2_ESM.xlsx (95 kb)
Online Resource 2 Dataset of the 87 nasopharyngeal samples positive for human bocavirus (xls. 447 kB) (XLSX 94 kb)

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Austria, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Medical MicrobiologyGhent University HospitalGhentBelgium
  2. 2.AZ Sint-Jan BrugesBruggeBelgium
  3. 3.AZ Sint-Lucas BrugesBruggeBelgium
  4. 4.Department of PediatricsGhent University HospitalGhentBelgium

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