Archives of Virology

, Volume 164, Issue 10, pp 2565–2571 | Cite as

Molecular epidemiology of enterovirus from children with herpangina or hand, foot, and mouth disease in Hangzhou, 2016

  • Wei Li
  • Cixiu Li
  • Lifang Liu
  • Xia Liu
  • Shiqiang Shang
  • Haiyan MaoEmail author
  • Yanjun ZhangEmail author
Brief Report


Enteroviruses (EVs) are the major cause of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) and herpangina in children. In this study, we conducted a molecular investigation of EVs in throat swab samples from children in Hangzhou, China with a diagnosis of HFMD or herpangina. EVs were detected using one-step real-time RT-PCR, and their serotypes were determined based on partial VP1 gene sequences. The molecular typing results revealed the presence of six different EV serotypes in HFMD cases, including coxsackievirus (CV) A16 (20/30, 66.7%), CVA4 (3/30, 10.0%), CVA6 (3/30, 10.0%), EVA71 (2/30, 6.7%), CVB4 (1/30, 3.3%), and CVB5 (1/30, 3.3%). Eleven different EV serotypes were detected in herpangina cases, among which CVA4 was the most frequently detected serotype (105/170, 61.8%), followed by CVA16 (30/170, 17.6%), CVB4 (9/170, 5.3%), CVA6 (6/170, 3.5%), CVB3 (5/170, 2.9%), CVA10 (3/170, 1.8%), EVA71 (4/170, 2.4%), Echo9 (3/170, 1.8%), CVA9 (2/170, 1.2%), CVB1 (3/170, 1.8%) and CVA5 (1/170, 0.6%). The nucleotide sequence identity of EV strains from the same subtype ranged from 80.7% to 100%, and most of the EVs were closely related to virus strains found in Australia and mainland China. In conclusion, CVA 16 and CVA 4 were the main serotypes causing HFMD and herpangina, respectively, in children in Hangzhou in 2016. Most of these EVs were closely related to virus strains from Australia and mainland China.



This study was funded by The Key Technologies R&D Program of the National Ministry of Science (2018ZX10734-401), the Medical Scientiic Projects from the Health Department of Zhejiang Province (2015KYA119) and the National Nature Science Foundation of China (81671495 and 81701535).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

This study was approved by the medical ethics committee of the Children’s Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine.

Supplementary material

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Austria, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Clinical LaboratoryChildren’s Hospital, Zhejiang University School of MedicineHangzhouPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.Department of Microbiology LaboratoryZhejiang Provincial Centre for Disease Control and PreventionHangzhouPeople’s Republic of China
  3. 3.School of Basic MedicineZhejiang UniversityHangzhouPeople’s Republic of China
  4. 4.Department of Clinical LaboratoryAffiliated Hospital of Hangzhou Normal UniversityHangzhouPeople’s Republic of China

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