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Archives of Virology

, Volume 164, Issue 7, pp 1949–1965 | Cite as

Taxonomy of the order Bunyavirales: update 2019

  • Abulikemu Abudurexiti
  • Scott Adkins
  • Daniela Alioto
  • Sergey V. Alkhovsky
  • Tatjana Avšič-Županc
  • Matthew J. Ballinger
  • Dennis A. Bente
  • Martin Beer
  • Éric Bergeron
  • Carol D. Blair
  • Thomas Briese
  • Michael J. Buchmeier
  • Felicity J. Burt
  • Charles H. Calisher
  • Chénchén Cháng
  • Rémi N. Charrel
  • Il Ryong Choi
  • J. Christopher S. Clegg
  • Juan Carlos de la Torre
  • Xavier de Lamballerie
  • Fēi Dèng
  • Francesco Di Serio
  • Michele Digiaro
  • Michael A. Drebot
  • Xiǎoméi Duàn
  • Hideki Ebihara
  • Toufic Elbeaino
  • Koray Ergünay
  • Charles F. Fulhorst
  • Aura R. Garrison
  • George Fú Gāo
  • Jean-Paul J. Gonzalez
  • Martin H. Groschup
  • Stephan Günther
  • Anne-Lise Haenni
  • Roy A. Hall
  • Jussi Hepojoki
  • Roger Hewson
  • Zhìhóng Hú
  • Holly R. Hughes
  • Miranda Gilda Jonson
  • Sandra Junglen
  • Boris Klempa
  • Jonas Klingström
  • Chūn Kòu
  • Lies Laenen
  • Amy J. Lambert
  • Stanley A. Langevin
  • Dan Liu
  • Igor S. Lukashevich
  • Tāo Luò
  • Chuánwèi Lǚ
  • Piet Maes
  • William Marciel de Souza
  • Marco Marklewitz
  • Giovanni P. Martelli
  • Keita Matsuno
  • Nicole Mielke-Ehret
  • Maria Minutolo
  • Ali Mirazimi
  • Abulimiti Moming
  • Hans-Peter Mühlbach
  • Rayapati Naidu
  • Beatriz Navarro
  • Márcio Roberto Teixeira Nunes
  • Gustavo Palacios
  • Anna Papa
  • Alex Pauvolid-Corrêa
  • Janusz T. Pawęska
  • Jié Qiáo
  • Sheli R. Radoshitzky
  • Renato O. Resende
  • Víctor Romanowski
  • Amadou Alpha Sall
  • Maria S. Salvato
  • Takahide Sasaya
  • Shū Shěn
  • Xiǎohóng Shí
  • Yukio Shirako
  • Peter Simmonds
  • Manuela Sironi
  • Jin-Won Song
  • Jessica R. Spengler
  • Mark D. Stenglein
  • Zhèngyuán Sū
  • Sùróng Sūn
  • Shuāng Táng
  • Massimo Turina
  • Bó Wáng
  • Chéng Wáng
  • Huálín Wáng
  • Jūn Wáng
  • Tàiyún Wèi
  • Anna E. Whitfield
  • F. Murilo Zerbini
  • Jìngyuàn Zhāng
  • Lěi Zhāng
  • Yànfāng Zhāng
  • Yong-Zhen Zhang
  • Yújiāng Zhāng
  • Xueping Zhou
  • Lìyǐng Zhū
  • Jens H. KuhnEmail author
Virology Division News

Abstract

In February 2019, following the annual taxon ratification vote, the order Bunyavirales was amended by creation of two new families, four new subfamilies, 11 new genera and 77 new species, merging of two species, and deletion of one species. This article presents the updated taxonomy of the order Bunyavirales now accepted by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV).

Introduction

The virus order Bunyavirales was established in 2017 to accommodate related viruses with segmented, linear, single-stranded, negative-sense or ambisense RNA genomes classified into nine families [19]. An amended/emended order description was published in early 2019 [20]. Here, we present the changes that were proposed via official ICTV taxonomic proposals that were accepted by the ICTV Executive Committee (EC) in February 2019. Therefore, these changes are now part of the official ICTV taxonomy.

Taxonomic changes at the order rank

The order was expanded by addition of two new families. Family Leishbuviridae was created to accommodate one new genus, Shilevirus, including one new species, Leptomonas shilevirus, for Leptomonas moramango leishbunyavirus (LEPMV) discovered in a trypanosomatid protist (Leptomonas moramango) [2]. Family Tospoviridae was recreated for the already established genus Tospovirus (now renamed Orthotospovirus; TaxoProp 2018.017M.A.v1.Bunyavirales_2fam5gen) and expanded by seven new species (TaxoProp 2018.025P.A.v1.Orthotospovirus_7sp):
  • Bean necrotic mosaic orthotospovirus for bean necrotic mosaic virus (BeNMV) discovered in common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) [8];

  • Calla lily chlorotic spot orthotospovirus for calla lily chlorotic spot virus (CCSV) found in calla lilies (Zantedeschia sp.) [5, 18];

  • Capsicum chlorosis orthotospovirus for capsicum chlorosis virus (CaCV) found in capsicums, chillies, and tomatoes [16, 23];

  • Chrysanthemum stem necrosis orthotospovirus for chrysanthemum stem necrosis virus (CSNV) infecting chrysanthemums [3, 10];

  • Melon severe mosaic orthotospovirus for melon severe mosaic virus (MSMV) infecting cucurbit crops [6, 7];

  • Melon yellow spot orthotospovirus for melon yellow spot virus (MYSV) found in netted melon (Cucumis melo) [15]; and

  • Soybean vein necrosis orthotospovirus for soybean vein necrosis virus (SVNV) discovered in soybeans (Glycine max) [36].

A genus unassigned to any family, Coguvirus, was established to include species Citrus coguvirus for citrus concave gum-associated virus (CCGaV) found in citrus trees [26] (TaxoProp 2018.020P.A.v1.Coguvirus).

Taxonomic changes at the family rank

Arenaviridae

The family Arenaviridae was expanded by one genus, Antennavirus, to include two new species, Hairy antennavirus and Striated antennavirus, for Wēnlǐng frogfish arenavirus 2 (WlFV-2) and Wēnlǐng frogfish arenavirus 1 (WlFV-1), both found in striated frogfish (Antennarius striatus) [33] (TaxoProp 2018.005M.A.v1.Antennavirus).

Cruliviridae

No changes were made at the family rank.

Fimoviridae

No changes were made at the family rank.

Hantaviridae

The family (TaxoProp 2018.010M.A.v2.Hantaviridae_4subfam) was reorganized into four subfamilies:
  • subfamily Actantavirinae was created for the new genus Actinovirus to accommodate three novel species: Batfish actinovirus for Wēnlǐng minipizza batfish virus (WEMV) discovered in minipizza batfish (Halieutaea stellata); Goosefish actinovirus for Wēnlǐng yellow goosefish virus (WEYGV) found in yellow goosefish (Lophius litulon); and Spikefish actinovirus for Wēnlǐng red spikefish virus (WERSV) of red spikefish (Triacanthodes anomalus) [33];

  • subfamily Agantavirinae was created for the new genus Agnathovirus to accommodate one new species, Hagfish agnathovirus, for Wēnlǐng hagfish virus (WEHV) of inshore hagfish (Eptatretus burgeri) [33];

  • subfamily Mammantavirinae was created to accommodate the established genera Loanvirus, Mobatvirus, and Orthohantavirus. Two new orthohantavirus species, Seewis orhtohantavirus and Tigray orthohantavirus, were created for Seewis virus (SWSV) of Eurasian common shrews (Sorex araneus) [34] and Tigray virus (TIGV) of Ethiopian white-footed mice (Stenocephalemys albipes) [12, 25], respectively; and

  • subfamily Repantavirinae was created for the new genus Reptillovirus to accommodate one new species, Gecko reptillovirus, for Hǎinán oriental leaf-toed gecko virus (HOLGV) discovered in oriental leaf-toed geckos (Hemidactylus bowringii) [33].

Mypoviridae

No changes were made at the family rank.

Nairoviridae

The species Estero Real orthonairovirus was created for Estero Real virus (ERV) (moved from genus Orthobunyavirus, family Peribunyaviridae) [1] (TaxoProp 2018.012M.A.v1.Bunyavirales_spmov).

Peribunyaviridae

The family was expanded by one new genus, Pacuvirus, to accommodate three new species: Pacui pacuvirus for Pacui virus (PACV) discovered in a rice rat (Oryzomys sp.); Rio Preto da Eva pacuvirus for Rio Preto da Eva virus discovered in a sewer gnat (Psychodidae sp.); and Tapirape pacuvirus for Tapirapé virus found in a hocicudo (Oxymycterus sp.) [27] (TaxoProp 2018.017M.A.v1.Bunyavirales_2fam5gen). Genus Tospovirus was removed from the family and placed into the new family Tospoviridae as genus Orthotospovirus (TaxoProp 2018.017M.A.v1.Bunyavirales_2fam5gen). The genus Orthobunyavirus was reorganized by moving previously classified viruses into a total of 38 new species (one resulting from a merger of two previously established species) (TaxoProp 2018.008M.A.v1.Orthobunyavirus_38sp). Five additional novel species were added: Bellavista orthobunyavirus for Bellavista virus isolated from mosquitoes (Culex portesi) [14]; Enseada orthobunyavirus for Enseada virus isolated from Culex mosquitoes [4, 9]; Maguari orthobunyavirus for Maguari virus (MAGV) isolated from mosquitoes [13]; Tataguine orthobunyavirus for Tataguine virus (TATV) found in a human sample, and Witwatersrand orthobunyavirus for Witwatersrand virus (WITV) from mosquitoes [29] (TaxoProp 2018.017M.A.v1.Bunyavirales_2fam5gen). Species Estero Real orthobunyavirus was abolished, and its member, Estero Real virus (ERV), was moved into family Nairoviridae [1] (TaxoProp 2018.012M.A.v1.Bunyavirales_spmov).

Phasmaviridae

The family was expanded by addition of one new genus, Sawastrivirus, to include one new species, Sanxia sawastrivirus, for Sānxiá water strider virus 2 (SxWSV-2) (TaxoProp 2018.017M.A.v1.Bunyavirales_2fam5gen) detected in gerrid water striders [31]. The genus Orthophasmavirus was expanded by the addition of five new species: Culex orthophasmavirus for Culex phasma-like virus (CPLV) detected in Culex mosquitoes [32]; Ganda orthophasmavirus for Ganda bee virus (GBEEV) of European orchard bees (Osmia cornuta) [28]; Odonate orthophasmavirus for Húběi odonate virus 8 (HbOV-8) [31]; Qingling orthophasmavirus for Húběi odonate virus 9 (HbOV-9) of odonates [31]; and Seattle orthophasmavirus for Seattle Prectang virus (SEPV) found in a moth (Pasiphila rectangulata) [21] (TaxoProp 2018.009M.A.v1.Phasmavirus_5sp).

Phenuiviridae

The family Phenuiviridae was expanded by addition of three new genera. Genus Kabutovirus was created to include two new species, Huangpi kabutovirus and Kabuto mountain kabutovirus, for Huángpí tick virus 1 (HpTV-1) of ticks (Haemaphysalis doenitzi) [17] and Kabuto mountain virus (KAMV) of ticks (Haemaphysalis flava) [11], respectively. Genus Laulavirus was created to include one species, Laurel Lake laulavirus, for Laurel Lake virus (LLV) of ticks (Ixodes scapularis) [35]. Genus Wenrivirus was created to include one species, Shrimp wenrivirus, for Wēnzhōu shrimp virus 1 (WzSV-1) [17] found in giant tiger prawns (Penaeus monodon) [17] (TaxoProp 2018.017M.A.v1.Bunyavirales_2fam5gen). The established genus Banyangvirus was expanded by two species, Guertu banyangvirus and Heartland banyangvirus, for Guertu virus (GTV) found in Dermacentor nuttalli ticks [30] and Heartland virus (HRTV), a tick-borne virus originally discovered in human samples [24], respectively (TaxoProp 2018.013M.A.v1.Banyangvirus_sp; TaxoProp 2018.017M.A.v1.Bunyavirales_2fam5gen). Genus Phlebovirus was expanded by one species, Mukawa phlebovirus, for Mukawa virus (MKWV) of ticks (Ixodes persulcatus) [22] (TaxoProp 2018.014M.A.v1.Phlebovirus_sp). In genus Phasivirus, species Wuhan fly phasivirus was abolished (TaxoProp 2018.019M.A.v1.Phenuiviridae_Remsp).

Wupedeviridae

No changes were made at the family rank.

Summary

A summary of the current, ICTV-accepted taxonomy of the order Bunyavirales is presented in Table 1.
Table 1

ICTV-accepted taxonomy of the order Bunyavirales as of February 2019. Listed are all bunyaviruses that are classified into species

Family/subfamily/genus

Species

Virus (abbreviation)

Family Arenaviridae

Antennavirus

Hairy antennavirus

Wēnlǐng frogfish arenavirus 2 (WlFAV-2)

 

Striated antennavirus*

Wēnlǐng frogfish arenavirus 1 (WlFAV-1)

Hartmanivirus

Haartman hartmanivirus*

Haartman Institute snake virus 1 (HISV-1)

Mammarenavirus

Allpahuayo mammarenavirus

Allpahuayo virus (ALLV)

 

Argentinian mammarenavirus

Junín virus (JUNV)

 

Bear Canyon mammarenavirus

Bear Canyon virus (BCNV)

 

Brazilian mammarenavirus

Sabiá virus (SBAV)

 

Cali mammarenavirus

Pichindé virus (PICHV)

 

Chapare mammarenavirus

Chapare virus (CHAPV)

 

Cupixi mammarenavirus

Cupixi virus (CUPXV)

 

Flexal mammarenavirus

Flexal virus (FLEV)

 

Gairo mammarenavirus

Gairo virus (GAIV)

 

Guanarito mammarenavirus

Guanarito virus (GTOV)

 

Ippy mammarenavirus

Ippy virus (IPPYV)

 

Lassa mammarenavirus

Lassa virus (LASV)

 

Latino mammarenavirus

Latino virus (LATV)

 

Loei River mammarenavirus

Loei River virus (LORV)

 

Lujo mammarenavirus

Lujo virus (LUJV)

 

Luna mammarenavirus

Luli virus (LULV)

  

Luna virus (LUAV)

 

Lunk mammarenavirus

Lunk virus (LNKV)

 

Lymphocytic choriomeningitis mammarenavirus*

Dandenong virus (DANV)

  

lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV)

 

Machupo mammarenavirus

Machupo virus (MACV)

 

Mariental mammarenavirus

Mariental virus (MRLV)

 

Merino Walk mammarenavirus

Merino Walk virus (MRWV)

 

Mobala mammarenavirus

mobala virus (MOBV)

 

Mopeia mammarenavirus

Mopeia virus (MPOV)

  

Morogoro virus (MORV)

 

Okahandja mammarenavirus

Okahandja virus (OKAV)

 

Oliveros mammarenavirus

Oliveros virus (OLVV)

 

Paraguayan mammarenavirus

Paraná virus (PRAV)

 

Pirital mammarenavirus

Pirital virus (PIRV)

 

Ryukyu mammarenavirus

Ryukyu virus (RYKV)

 

Serra do Navio mammarenavirus

Amaparí virus (AMAV)

 

Solwezi mammarenavirus

Solwezi virus (SOLV)

 

Souris mammarenavirus

souris virus (SOUV)

 

Tacaribe mammarenavirus

Tacaribe virus (TCRV)

 

Tamiami mammarenavirus

Tamiami virus (TMMV)

 

Wenzhou mammarenavirus

Wēnzhōu virus (WENV)

 

Whitewater Arroyo mammarenavirus

Big Brushy Tank virus (BBRTV)

  

Catarina virus (CTNV)

  

Skinner Tank virus (SKTV)

  

Tonto Creek virus (TTCV)

  

Whitewater Arroyo virus (WWAV)

Reptarenavirus

California reptarenavirus

CAS virus (CASV)

 

Giessen reptarenavirus

University of Giessen virus 1 (UGV-1)

  

University of Giessen virus 2 (UGV-2)

  

University of Giessen virus 3 (UGV-3)

 

Golden reptarenavirus*

Golden Gate virus (GOGV)

 

Ordinary reptarenavirus

tavallinen suomalainen mies virus 2 (TSMV-2)

 

Rotterdam reptarenavirus

ROUT virus (ROUTV)

  

University of Helsinki virus 1 (UHV-1)

Family Cruliviridae

Lincruvirus

Crustacean lincruvirus*

Wēnlǐng crustacean virus 9 (WlCV-9)

Family Fimoviridae

Emaravirus

Actinidia chlorotic ringspot-associated emaravirus

Actinidia chlorotic ringspot-associated virus (AcCRaV)

 

European mountain ash ringspot-associated emaravirus*

European mountain ash ringspot-associated virus (EMARaV)

 

Fig mosaic emaravirus

fig mosaic virus (FMV)

 

High Plains wheat mosaic emaravirus

High Plains wheat mosaic virus (HPWMoV)

 

Pigeonpea sterility mosaic emaravirus 1

pigeonpea sterility mosaic virus (PPSMV)

 

Pigeonpea sterility mosaic emaravirus 2

pigeonpea sterility mosaic virus 2 (PPSMV-2)

 

Raspberry leaf blotch emaravirus

raspberry leaf blotch virus (RLBV)

 

Redbud yellow ringspot-associated emaravirus

redbud yellow ringspot-associated virus (RYRaV)

 

Rose rosette emaravirus

rose rosette virus (RRV)

Family Hantaviridae

Subfamily Actantavirinae

Actinovirus

Batfish actinovirus*

Wēnlǐng minipizza batfish virus (WEMBV)

 

Goosefish actinovirus

Wēnlǐng yellow goosefish virus (WEYGV)

 

Spikefish actinovirus

Wēnlǐng red spikefish virus (WERSV)

Subfamily Agantavirinae

Agnathovirus

Hagfish agnathovirus*

Wēnlǐng hagfish virus (WEHV)

Subfamily Mammantavirinae

Loanvirus

Longquan loanvirus*

Lóngquán virus (LQUV)

Mobatvirus

Laibin mobatvirus

Láibīn virus (LAIV)

 

Nova mobatvirus*

Nova virus (NVAV)

 

Quezon mobatvirus

Quezon virus (QZNV)

Orthohantavirus

Andes orthohantavirus

Andes virus (ANDV)

  

Castelo dos Sonhos virus (CASV)

  

Lechiguanas virus (LECV = LECHV)

  

Orán virus (ORNV)

 

Asama orthohantavirus

Asama virus (ASAV)

 

Asikkala orthohantavirus

Asikkala virus (ASIV)

 

Bayou orthohantavirus

bayou virus (BAYV)

  

Catacamas virus (CATV)

 

Black Creek Canal orthohantavirus

Black Creek Canal virus (BCCV)

 

Bowe orthohantavirus

Bowé virus (BOWV)

 

Bruges orthohantavirus

Bruges virus (BRGV)

 

Cano Delgadito orthohantavirus

Caño Delgadito virus (CADV)

 

Cao Bang orthohantavirus

Cao Bằng virus (CBNV)

  

Liánghé virus (LHEV)

 

Choclo orthohantavirus

Choclo virus (CHOV)

 

Dabieshan orthohantavirus

Dàbiéshān virus (DBSV)

 

Dobrava-Belgrade orthohantavirus

Dobrava virus (DOBV)

  

Kurkino virus (KURV)

  

Saaremaa virus (SAAV)

  

Sochi virus (SOCV)

 

El Moro Canyon orthohantavirus

Carrizal virus (CARV)

  

El Moro Canyon virus (ELMCV)

  

Huitzilac virus (HUIV)

 

Fugong orthohantavirus

Fúgòng virus (FUGV)

 

Fusong orthohantavirus

Fǔsōng virus (FUSV)

 

Hantaan orthohantavirus*

Amur virus (AMRV)

  

Hantaan virus (HTNV)

  

Soochong virus (SOOV)

 

Jeju orthohantavirus

Jeju virus (JJUV)

 

Kenkeme orthohantavirus

Kenkeme virus (KKMV)

 

Khabarovsk orthohantavirus

Khabarovsk virus (KHAV)

  

Topografov virus (TOPV)

 

Laguna Negra orthohantavirus

Laguna Negra virus (LANV)

  

Maripa virus (MARV)

  

Río Mamoré virus (RIOMV)

 

Luxi orthohantavirus

Lúxī virus (LUXV)

 

Maporal orthohantavirus

Maporal virus (MAPV)

 

Montano orthohantavirus

Montaño virus (MTNV)

 

Necocli orthohantavirus

Necoclí virus (NECV)

 

Oxbow orthohantavirus

Oxbow virus (OXBV)

 

Prospect Hill orthohantavirus

Prospect Hill virus (PHV)

 

Puumala orthohantavirus

Hokkaido virus (HOKV)

  

Muju virus (MUJV)

  

Puumala virus (PUUV)

 

Rockport orthohantavirus

Rockport virus (RKPV)

 

Sangassou orthohantavirus

Sangassou virus (SANGV)

 

Seewis orthohantavirus

Seewis virus (SWSV)

 

Seoul orthohantavirus

gōu virus (GOUV)

  

Seoul virus (SEOV)

 

Sin Nombre orthohantavirus

New York virus (NYV)

  

Sin Nombre virus (SNV)

 

Thailand orthohantavirus

Anjozorobe virus (ANJZV)

  

Serang virus (SERV)

  

Thailand virus (THAIV)

 

Tigray orthohantavirus

Tigray virus (TIGV)

 

Tula orthohantavirus

Adler virus (ADLV)

  

Tula virus (TULV)

 

Yakeshi orthohantavirus

Yákèshí virus (YKSV)

Thottimvirus

Imjin thottimvirus

Imjin virus (MJNV)

 

Thottapalayam thottimvirus*

Thottapalayam virus (TPMV)

Subfamily Repantavirinae

Reptillovirus

Gecko reptillovirus*

Hǎinán oriental leaf-toed gecko virus (HOLGV)

Family Leishbuviridae

Shilevirus

Leptomonas shilevirus*

Leptomonas moramango virus

(LEPMV)

Family Mypoviridae

Hubavirus

Myriapod hubavirus*

Húběi myriapoda virus 5 (HbMV-5)

Family Nairoviridae

Orthonairovirus

Artashat orthonairovirus

Artashat virus (ARTSV)

 

Chim orthonairovirus

Chim virus (CHIMV)

 

Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever orthonairovirus

Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV)

 

Dera Ghazi Khan orthonairovirus

Abu Hammad virus (AHV)

  

Abu Mina virus (AMV)

  

Dera Ghazi Khan virus (DGKV)

  

Sapphire II virus (SAPV)

 

Dugbe orthonairovirus*

Dugbe virus (DUGV)

  

kupe virus (KUPEV)

 

Estero Real orthonairovirus

Estero Real virus (ERV)

 

Hazara orthonairovirus

Hazara virus (HAZV)

  

Tofla virus (TFLV)

 

Hughes orthonairovirus

Caspiy virus (CASV)

  

Farallon virus (FARV)

  

Great Saltee virus (GRSV)

  

Hughes virus (HUGV)

  

Punta Salinas virus (PSV)

  

Raza virus (RAZAV)

  

Soldado virus (SOLV)

  

Zirqa virus (ZIRV)

 

Kasokero orthonairovirus

Kasokero virus (KASV = KASOV)

  

Leopards Hill virus (LPHV)

  

Yogue virus (YOGV)

 

Keterah orthonairovirus

Gossas virus (GOSV)

  

Issyk-kul virus (ISKV)

  

Keterah virus (KTRV)

  

Uzun-Agach virus (UZAV)

 

Nairobi sheep disease orthonairovirus

Nairobi sheep disease virus (NSDV)

 

Qalyub orthonairovirus

Bandia virus (BDAV)

  

Geran virus (GERV)

  

Qalyub virus (QYBV)

 

Sakhalin orthonairovirus

Avalon virus (AVAV)

  

Clo Mor virus (CMV = CLMV)

  

Sakhalin virus (SAKV)

  

Taggert virus (TAGV)

  

Tillamook virus (TILLV)

 

Tamdy orthonairovirus

Burana virus (BURV)

  

Huángpí tick virus 1 (HpTV-1)

  

Tǎchéng tick virus 1 (TcTV-1)

  

Tamdy virus (TAMV)

  

Wēnzhōu tick virus (WzTV)

 

Thiafora orthonairovirus

Erve virus (ERVEV)

  

Thiafora virus (TFAV)

Shaspivirus

Spider shaspivirus*

Shāyáng spider virus 1 (SySV-1)

Striwavirus

Strider striwavirus*

Sānxiá water strider virus 1 (SxWSV-1)

Family Peribunyaviridae

Herbevirus

Herbert herbevirus*

Herbert virus (HEBV)

 

Kibale herbevirus

Kibale virus (KIBV)

 

Tai herbevirus

Taï virus (TAIV)

Orthobunyavirus

Acara orthobunyavirus

Acará virus (ACAV)

  

Moriche virus (MORV)

 

Aino orthobunyavirus

Aino virus (AINOV)

 

Akabane orthobunyavirus

Akabane virus (AKAV)

  

Tinaroo virus (TINV)

  

Yaba-7 virus (Y7V)

 

Alajuela orthobunyavirus

Alajuela virus (ALJV)

  

San Juan virus (SJV)

 

Anadyr orthobunyavirus

Anadyr virus (ANADV)

 

Anhembi orthobunyavirus

Anhembi virus (AMBV)

 

Anopheles A orthobunyavirus

Anopheles A virus (ANAV)

  

Arumateua virus (ARTV = ARMTV)

  

Caraipé virus (CPEV = CRPV)

  

Las Maloyas virus (LMV)

  

Lukuni virus (LUKV)

  

Trombetas virus (TRMV)

  

Tucuruí virus (TUCV = TUCRV)

 

Anopheles B orthobunyavirus

Anopheles B virus (ANBV)

  

Boracéia virus (BORV)

 

Bakau orthobunyavirus

Bakau virus (BAKV)

  

Ketapang virus (KETV)

  

Nola virus (NOLAV)

  

Tanjong Rabok virus (TRV)

  

Telok Forest virus (TFV)

 

Batai orthobunyavirus

Batai virus (BATV)

 

Batama orthobunyavirus

Batama virus (BMAV)

 

Bellavista orthobunyavirus

Bellavista virus (BELLV)

 

Benevides orthobunyavirus

Benevides virus (BVSV = BENV)

 

Bertioga orthobunyavirus

Bertioga virus (BERV)

  

Cananéia virus (CNAV)

  

Guaratuba virus (GTBV)

  

Itimirim virus (ITIV)

  

Mirim virus (MIRV)

 

Bimiti orthobunyavirus

bimiti virus (BIMV)

 

Birao orthobunyavirus

Birao virus (BIRV)

 

Botambi orthobunyavirus

Botambi virus (BOTV)

 

Bozo orthobunyavirus

Bozo virus (BOZOV)

 

Bunyamwera orthobunyavirus*

Bunyamwera virus (BUNV)

  

Germiston virus (GERV)

  

Lokern virus (LOKV)

  

Mboké virus (MBOV)

  

Ngari virus (NRIV)

  

Northway virus (NORV)

  

Santa Rosa virus (SARV)

  

Shokwe virus (SHOV)

  

Stanfield virus (STAV)

  

Xingu virus (XINV)

 

Bushbush orthobunyavirus

Benfica virus (BENV = BNFV)

  

Bushbush virus (BSBV)

  

Juan Díaz virus (JDV)

 

Buttonwillow orthobunyavirus

Buttonwillow virus (BUTV)

 

Bwamba orthobunyavirus

Bwamba virus (BWAV)

  

Pongola virus (PGAV)

 

Cache Valley orthobunyavirus

Cache Valley virus (CVV)

  

Cholul virus (CHLV)

  

Tlacotalpan virus (TLAV)

 

Cachoeira Porteira orthobunyavirus

Cachoeira Porteira virus (CPOV)

 

California encephalitis orthobunyavirus

California encephalitis virus (CEV)

  

Morro Bay virus (MBV)

 

Capim orthobunyavirus

Capim virus (CAPV)

 

Caraparu orthobunyavirus

Apeú virus (APEUV)

  

Bruconha virus (BRUV)

  

Caraparú virus (CARV)

  

El Huayo virus (EHUV)

  

Itaya virus (ITYV)

  

Ossa virus (OSSAV)

  

Vinces virus (VINV)

 

Cat Que orthobunyavirus

Cát Quế virus (CQV)

  

Oya virus (OYAV)

 

Catu orthobunyavirus

Catú virus (CATUV)

 

Enseada orthobunyavirus

Enseada virus (ENSV)

 

Faceys paddock orthobunyavirus

Facey’s paddock virus (FPV)

 

Fort Sherman orthobunyavirus

Fort Sherman virus (FSV)

 

Gamboa orthobunyavirus

Brus Laguna virus (BLAV)

  

Calchaquí virus (CQIV)

  

Gamboa virus (GAMV)

  

Pueblo Viejo virus (PVV)

  

Soberanía virus (SOBV)

 

Guajara orthobunyavirus

Guajará virus (GJAV)

 

Guama orthobunyavirus

Ananindeua virus (ANUV)

  

Guamá virus (GMAV)

  

Mahogany Hammock virus (MHV)

  

Moju virus (MOJUV)

 

Guaroa orthobunyavirus

Guaroa virus (GROV)

 

Iaco orthobunyavirus

Iaco virus (IACOV)

 

Ilesha orthobunyavirus

Ilesha virus (ILEV)

 

Ingwavuma orthobunyavirus

Ingwavuma virus (INGV)

 

Jamestown Canyon orthobunyavirus

Inkoo virus (INKV)

  

Jamestown Canyon virus (JCV)

  

Jerry Slough virus (JSV)

  

South River virus (SORV)

 

Jatobal orthobunyavirus

Jatobal virus (JATV)

 

Kaeng Khoi orthobunyavirus

Kaeng Khoi virus (KKV)

 

Kairi orthobunyavirus

Kairi virus (KRIV)

 

Keystone orthobunyavirus

Keystone virus (KEYV)

 

Koongol orthobunyavirus

koongol virus (KOOV)

  

wongal virus (WONV)

 

La Crosse orthobunyavirus

La Crosse virus (LACV)

 

Leanyer orthobunyavirus

Leanyer virus (LEAV)

 

Lumbo orthbunyavirus

Lumbo virus (LUMV)

 

Macaua orthobunyavirus

Macauã virus (MCAV)

 

Madrid orthobunyavirus

Madrid virus (MADV)

 

Maguari orthobunyavirus

Maguari virus (MAGV)

  

Playas virus (PLAV)

 

Main Drain orthobunyavirus

Main Drain virus (MDV)

 

Manzanilla orthobunyavirus

Manzanilla virus (MANV)

  

Inini virus (INIV)

 

Marituba orthobunyavirus

Gumbo Limbo virus (GLV)

  

Marituba virus (MTBV)

  

Murutucú virus (MURV)

  

Nepuyo virus (NEPV)

  

Restan virus (RESV)

  

Zungarococha virus (ZUNV)

 

Melao orthobunyavirus

Melao virus (MELV)

 

Mermet orthobunyavirus

Mermet virus (MERV)

 

Minatitlan orthobunyavirus

Minatitlán virus (MNTV)

  

Palestina virus (PLSV)

 

MPoko orthobunyavirus

M’Poko virus (MPOV)

  

Yaba-1 virus (Y1V)

 

Nyando orthobunyavirus

Eretmapodites virus (ERETV)

  

Mojuí dos Campos virus (MDCV)

  

Nyando virus (NDV)

 

Olifantsvlei orthobunyavirus

Bobia virus (BIAV)

  

Dabakala virus (DABV)

  

Olifantsvlei virus (OLIV)

  

Oubi virus (OUBIV)

 

Oriboca orthobunyavirus

Itaquí virus (ITQV)

  

Oriboca virus (ORIV)

 

Oropouche orthobunyavirus

Iquitos virus (IQTV)d

  

Madre de Dios virus (MDDV)

  

Oropouche virus (OROV)

  

Perdões virus (PDEV)

  

Pintupo virus (PINTV)

 

Patois orthobunyavirus

Abras virus (ABRV)

  

Babahoya virus (BABV)

  

Pahayokee virus (PAHV)

  

Patois virus (PATV)

  

Shark River virus (SRV)

 

Peaton orthobunyavirus

Peaton virus (PEAV)

 

Potosi orthobunyavirus

Potosi virus (POTV)

 

Sabo orthobunyavirus

Sabo virus (SABOV)

 

San Angelo orthobunyavirus

San Angelo virus (SAV)

 

Sango orthobunyavirus

Sango virus (SANV)

 

Schmallenberg orthobunyavirus

Douglas virus (DOUV)

  

Sathuperi virus (SATV)

  

Schmallenberg virus (SBV)

  

Shamonda virus (SHAV)

 

Serra do Navio orthobunyavirus

Serra do Navio virus (SDNV)

 

Shuni orthobunyavirus

Kaikalur virus (KAIV)

  

Shuni virus (SHUV)

 

Simbu orthobunyavirus

Para virus (PARAV)

  

Simbu virus (SIMV)

 

Snowshoe hare orthobunyavirus

Khatanga virus (KHATV)9

  

snowshoe hare virus (SSHV)

 

Sororoca orthobunyavirus

Sororoca virus (SORV)

 

Tacaiuma orthobunyavirus

CoAr 1071 virus (CA1071V)

  

CoAr 3627 virus (CA3626V)

  

Tacaiuma virus (TCMV)

  

Virgin River virus (VRV)

 

Tahyna orthobunyavirus

Ťahyňa virus (TAHV)

 

Tataguine orthobunyavirus

Tataguine virus (TATV)

 

Tensaw orthobunyavirus

Tensaw virus (TENV)

 

Tete orthobunyavirus

Bahig virus (BAHV)

  

Matruh virus (MTRV)

  

Tete virus (TETEV)

  

Tsuruse virus (TSUV)

  

Weldona virus (WELV)

 

Thimiri orthobunyavirus

Thimiri virus (THIV)

 

Timboteua orthobunyavirus

Timboteua virus (TBTV)

 

Trivittatus orthobunyavirus

Achiote virus (ACHOV)

  

Trivittatus virus (TVTV)

 

Turlock orthobunyavirus

Lednice virus (LEDV)

  

Turlock virus (TURV)

  

Umbre virus (UMBV)

 

Utinga orthobunyavirus

Utinga virus (UTIV)

 

Witwatersrand orthobunyavirus

Witwatersrand virus (WITV)

 

Wolkberg orthobunyavirus

Wolkberg virus (WBV)

 

Wyeomyia orthobunyavirus

Rio Pracupi virus

  

Taiassui virus (TAIAV)

  

Tucunduba virus (TUCV)

  

Wyeomyia virus (WYOV)

 

Zegla orthobunyavirus

Zegla virus (ZEGV)

Pacuvirus

Pacui pacuvirus*

Pacui virus (PACV)

 

Rio Preto da Eva pacuvirus

Rio Preto da Eva virus (RPEV)

 

Tapirape pacuvirus

Tapirapé virus (TAPV)

Shangavirus

Insect shangavirus*

Shuāngào insect virus 1 (SgIV-1)

Family Phasmaviridae

Feravirus

Ferak feravirus*

Ferak virus (FRKV)

Inshuvirus

Insect inshuvirus*

Shuāngào insect virus 2 (SgIV-2)

Jonvirus

Jonchet jonvirus*

jonchet virus (JONV)

Orthophasmavirus

Culex orthophasmavirus

Culex phasma-like virus (CPLV)

 

Ganda orthophasmavirus

Ganda bee virus (GBEEV)

 

Kigluaik phantom orthophasmavirus*

Kigluaik phantom virus (KIGV)

 

Nome phantom orthophasmavirus

Nome phantom virus (NOMV)

 

Odonate orthophasmavirus

Húběi odonate virus 8 (HbOV-8)

 

Qingling orthophasmavirus

Húběi odonate virus 9 (HbOV-9)

 

Seattle orthophasmavirus

Seattle Prectang virus (SEPV)

 

Wuchang cockroach orthophasmavirus 1

Wǔchāng cockroach virus 1 (WcCV-1)

 

Wuhan mosquito orthophasmavirus 1

Wǔhàn mosquito virus 1 (WhMV-1)

 

Wuhan mosquito orthophasmavirus 2

Wǔhàn mosquito virus 2 (WhMV-2)

Sawastrivirus

Sanxia sawastrivirus*

Sānxiá water strider virus 2 (SxWSV-2)

Wuhivirus

Insect wuhivirus*

Wǔhàn insect virus 2 (WhIV-2)

Family Phenuiviridae

Banyangvirus

Guertu banyangvirus

Guertu virus (GTV)

 

Heartland banyangvirus

Heartland virus (HRTV)

 

Huaiyangshan banyangvirus*

severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV)

Beidivirus

Dipteran beidivirus*

Húběi diptera virus 3 (HbDV-3)

Goukovirus

Cumuto goukovirus

Cumuto virus (CUMV)

 

Gouleako goukovirus*

Gouléako virus (GOLV)

 

Yichang insect goukovirus

Yíchāng insect virus (YcIV)

Horwuvirus

Horsefly horwuvirus*

Wǔhàn horsefly virus (WhHV)

Hudivirus

Dipteran hudivirus*

Húběi diptera virus 4 (HbDV-4)

Hudovirus

Lepidopteran hudovirus*

Húběi lepidoptera virus 1 (HbLV-1)

Kabutovirus

Huangpi kabutovirus*

Huángpí tick virus 2 (HpTV-2)

 

Kabuto mountain kabutovirus

Kabuto mountain virus (KAMV)

Laulavirus

Laurel Lake laulavirus*

Laurel Lake virus (LLV)

Mobuvirus

Mothra mobuvirus*

Mothra virus (MTHV)

Phasivirus

Badu phasivirus*

Badu virus (BADUV)

 

Phasi Charoen-like phasivirus

Phasi Chaeron-like virus (PCLV)

 

Wutai mosquito phasivirus

Wǔtái mosquito virus (WtMV)

Phlebovirus

Bujaru phlebovirus

Bujaru virus (BUJV)

  

Munguba virus (MUNV)

 

Candiru phlebovirus

Alenquer virus (ALEV)

  

Ariquemes virus (ARQV)

  

Candirú virus (CDUV)

  

Itaituba virus (ITAV)

  

Jacundá virus (JCNV)

  

Maldonado virus (MLOV)

  

Morumbi virus (MR(M)BV)

  

Mucura virus (MCRV/MRAV)

  

Nique virus (NIQV)

  

Oriximiná virus (ORXV)

  

Serra Norte virus (SRNV)

  

Turuna virus (TUAV)

 

Chilibre phlebovirus

Cacao virus (CACV)

  

Chilibre virus (CHIV)

 

Frijoles phlebovirus

Frijoles virus (FRIV)

  

Joá virus (JOAV)

 

Mukawa phlebovirus

Mukawa virus (MKWV)

 

Punta Toro phlebovirus

Buenaventura virus (BUEV)

  

Campana virus (CMAV)

  

Capira virus (CAPIV)

  

Coclé virus (CCLV)

  

Leticia virus (LTCV)

  

Punta Toro virus (PTV)

 

Rift Valley fever phlebovirus*

Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV)

 

Salehabad phlebovirus

Adana virus (ADAV)

  

Adria virus (ADRV)

  

Alcube virus

  

Arbia virus (ARBV)

  

Arumowot virus (AMTV)

  

Bregalaka virus (BREV)

  

Medjerda Valley virus (MVV)

  

Odrénisrou virus (ODRV)

  

Olbia virus (OLBV)

  

Salehabad virus (SALV)

  

Zaba virus (ZABAV)

 

Sandfly fever Naples phlebovirus

Arrábida virus (ARRV)

  

Balkan virus (BALKV)

  

Fermo virus (FERV)

  

Gordil virus (GORV)

  

Granada virus (GRV = GRAV)

  

Massilia virus (MASV)

  

Punique virus (PUNV)

  

Saddaguia virus (SADV)

  

Saint-Floris virus (SAFV)

  

sandfly fever Naples virus (SFNV)

  

Tehran virus (THEV)

  

Toscana virus (TOSV)

  

Zerdali virus (ZERV)

 

Uukuniemi phlebovirus

Chizé virus (CHZV)

  

EgAN 1825-61 virus (EGAV)

  

Fin V 707 virus (FINV)

  

Oceanside virus (OCV = OCEV)

  

Pontevès virus (PTVV)

  

St. Abbs Head virus (SAHV)

  

Uukuniemi virus (UUKV)

  

Zaliv Terpenyia virus (ZTV)

Pidchovirus

Pidgey pidchovirus*

Pidgey virus (PGYV)

Tenuivirus

Echinochloa hoja blanca tenuivirus

Echinochloa hoja blanca virus (EHBV)

 

Iranian wheat stripe tenuivirus

Iranian wheat stripe virus (IWSV)

 

Maize stripe tenuivirus

maize stripe virus (MStV = MSpV)

 

Rice grassy stunt tenuivirus

rice grassy stunt virus (RGSV)

 

Rice hoja blanca tenuivirus

rice hoja blanca virus (RHBV)

 

Rice stripe tenuivirus*

rice stripe virus (RSV = RStV)

 

Urochloa hoja blanca tenuivirus

Urochloa hoja blanca virus (UHBV)

Wenrivirus

Shrimp wenrivirus*

Wēnzhōu shrimp virus 1 WzSV-1

Wubeivirus

Dipteran wubeivirus*

Húběi diptera virus 5 (HbDV-5)

 

Fly wubeivirus

Wǔhàn fly virus 1 (WhFV-1)

Family Tospoviridae

Orthotospovirus

Bean necrotic mosaic orthotospovirus

bean necrotic mosaic virus (BeNMV)

 

Calla lily chlorotic spot orthotospovirus

calla lily chlorotic spot virus (CCSV)

 

Capsicum chlorosis orthotospovirus

capsicum chlorosis virus (CaCV)

 

Chrysanthemum stem necrosis orthotospovirus

chrysanthemum stem necrosis virus (CSNV)

 

Groundnut bud necrosis tospovirus 1

groundnut bud necrosis virus (GBNV)

 

Groundnut ringspot tospovirus 1

groundnut ringspot virus (GRSV)

 

Groundnut yellow spot tospovirus 1

groundnut yellow spot virus (GYSV)

 

Impatiens necrotic spot tospovirus 1

impatiens necrotic spot virus (INSV)

 

Iris yellow spot tospovirus 1

iris yellow spot virus (IYSV)

 

Melon severe mosaic orthotospovirus

melon severe mosaic virus (MSMV)

 

Melon yellow spot orthotospovirus

melon yellow spot virus (MYSV)

 

Polygonum ringspot tospovirus 1

polygonum ringspot virus (PolRSV)

 

Soybean vein necrosis orthotospovirus

soybean vein necrosis virus (SVNV)

 

Tomato chlorotic spot tospovirus 1

tomato chlorotic spot virus (TCSV)

 

Tomato spotted wilt tospovirus* 1

tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV)

 

Watermelon bud necrosis tospovirus 1

watermelon bud necrosis virus (WBNV)

 

Watermelon silver mottle tospovirus 1

watermelon silver mottle virus (WSMoV)

 

Zucchini lethal chlorosis tospovirus 1

zucchini lethal chlorosis virus (ZLCV)

Family Wupedeviridae

Wumivirus

Millipede wumivirus*

Wǔhàn millipede virus 2 (WhMV-2)

Unassigned

Coguvirus

Citrus coguvirus*

citrus concave gum-associated virus (CCGaV)

*type species

1Due to a formal classification mistake, this species was not correctly renamed to include the genus epithet “orthotospovirus.” A proposal to ensure that all species included in the genus Orthotospovirus are named uniformly ending in “orthotospovirus” will be submitted prior to the next taxonomic proposal submission deadline

Please note that viruses are real objects that are assigned to concepts that are called taxa. Species, genera, families, and orders are taxa. Taxon names are always italicized and always begin with a capital letter. Virus names, on the other hand, are not italicized and are not capitalized, except if the name or a name component is a proper noun. This column lists the virus names with their correct (lack of) capitalization. Lists of viruses within a given species are provisional at this point and will likely be amended in the near future

Notes

Acknowledgements

We thank Laura Bollinger (NIH/NIAID Integrated Research Facility at Fort Detrick, Frederick, MD, USA) for critically editing the manuscript.

Compliance with ethical standards

The views and conclusions contained in this document are those of the authors and should not be interpreted as necessarily representing the official policies, either expressed or implied, of the US Department of the Army, the US Department of Defense, the US Department of Health and Human Services, or of the institutions and companies affiliated with the authors. In no event shall any of these entities have any responsibility or liability for any use, misuse, inability to use, or reliance upon the information contained herein. The US departments do not endorse any products or commercial services mentioned in this publication.

Funding

This work was supported in part through Battelle Memorial Institute’s prime contract with the US National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) under Contract no. HHSN272200700016I (J. H. K.). This work was also funded in part by Grant 109520 by the UK Department of Health, Public Health England (R. H.). W. M. S. is supported by Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo, Brazil (17/13981-0). This work was supported by the Intergovernmental Special Program of State Key Research and Development Plan from the Ministry of Science and Technology of China (2016YFE0113500) and European Union’s Horizon 2020 EVAg project (no. 653316).

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Ethical approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Center for Disease Control and Prevention of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous RegionÜrümqiChina
  2. 2.United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, US Horticultural Research LaboratoryFort PierceUSA
  3. 3.Dipartimento di AgrariaUniversità degli Studi di Napoli Federico IIPorticiItaly
  4. 4.D. I. Ivanovsky Institute of Virology, N. F. Gamaleya Federal Research Center for Epidemiology and Microbiology, Ministry of Health of the Russian FederationMoscowRussia
  5. 5.University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana Faculty of MedicineLjubljanaSlovenia
  6. 6.Department of Biological SciencesMississippi State UniversityMississippi StateUSA
  7. 7.University of Texas Medical BranchGalvestonUSA
  8. 8.Institute of Diagnostic VirologyFriedrich-Loeffler-InstitutGreifswald-Insel RiemsGermany
  9. 9.Viral Special Pathogens Branch, Division of High-Consequence Pathogens and Pathology, Centers for Disease Control and PreventionAtlantaUSA
  10. 10.Colorado State UniversityFort CollinsUSA
  11. 11.Center for Infection and Immunity, and Department of EpidemiologyMailman School of Public Health, Columbia UniversityNew YorkUSA
  12. 12.Department of Molecular Biology and BiochemistryUniversity of CaliforniaIrvineUSA
  13. 13.Division of Virology, National Health Laboratory Service and Division of VirologyUniversity of the Free StateBloemfonteinRepublic of South Africa
  14. 14.Xinjiang Key Laboratory of Biological Resources and Genetic Engineering, College of Life Science and TechnologyXinjiang UniversityÜrümqiChina
  15. 15.Unité des Virus Emergents (Aix-Marseille Univ-IRD 190-Inserm 1207-IHU Méditerranée Infection)MarseilleFrance
  16. 16.Plant Breeding Genetics and Biotechnology Division and International Rice Research InstituteLos BañosPhilippines
  17. 17.Les MandinauxLe Grand MadieuFrance
  18. 18.Department of Immunology and Microbiology IMM-6The Scripps Research InstituteLa JollaUSA
  19. 19.State Key Laboratory of VirologyWuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of SciencesWuhanChina
  20. 20.Istituto per la Protezione Sostenibile delle Piante, Consiglio Nazionale delle RicercheBariItaly
  21. 21.Istituto Agronomico Mediterraneo di BariValenzanoItaly
  22. 22.Zoonotic Diseases and Special PathogensNational Microbiology Laboratory, Public Health Agency of CanadaWinnipegCanada
  23. 23.Department of Molecular MedicineMayo ClinicRochesterUSA
  24. 24.Virology Unit, Department of Medical MicrobiologyHacettepe University, Faculty of MedicineAnkaraTurkey
  25. 25.United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, Fort DetrickFrederickUSA
  26. 26.National Institute for Viral Disease Control and PreventionChinese Center for Disease Control and PreventionBeijingChina
  27. 27.Center of Excellence for Emerging and Zoonotic Animal DiseaseKansas State UniversityManhattanUSA
  28. 28.Institute of Novel and Emerging Infectious DiseasesFriedrich-Loeffler-InstitutGreifswald-Insel RiemsGermany
  29. 29.Department of VirologyBernhard-Nocht Institute for Tropical Medicine, WHO Collaborating Centre for Arboviruses and Hemorrhagic Fever Reference and ResearchHamburgGermany
  30. 30.Institut Jacques Monod, CNRS-Université Paris-DiderotParisFrance
  31. 31.Australian Infectious Diseases Research Centre, School of Chemistry and Molecular Biosciences, The University of QueenslandBrisbaneAustralia
  32. 32.Department of VirologyUniversity of Helsinki, Faculty of Medicine, MedicumHelsinkiFinland
  33. 33.Institute of Veterinary PathologyVetsuisse Faculty, University of ZurichZurichSwitzerland
  34. 34.Public Health EnglandSalisburyUK
  35. 35.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of Vector-Borne DiseasesFort CollinsUSA
  36. 36.Department of Agricultural Biotechnology, Center for Fungal Pathogenesis, College of Agriculture and Life SciencesSeoul National UniversitySeoulKorea
  37. 37.Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Corporate Member of Free University Berlin, Humboldt-University Berlin, and Berlin Institute of HealthBerlinGermany
  38. 38.German Centre for Infection ResearchBerlinGermany
  39. 39.Biomedical Research CenterSlovak Academy of SciencesBratislavaSlovakia
  40. 40.Center for Infectious Medicine, Department of Medicine HuddingeKarolinska Institutet, Karolinska University HospitalStockholmSweden
  41. 41.KU Leuven, Rega Institute, Zoonotic Infectious Diseases UnitLeuvenBelgium
  42. 42.Department of Laboratory MedicineUniversity Hospitals LeuvenLeuvenBelgium
  43. 43.Department of MicrobiologyUniversity of WashingtonWashingtonUSA
  44. 44.School of MedicineWuhan University of Science and TechnologyWuhanChina
  45. 45.Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, School of Medicine, and the Center for Predictive Medicine for Biodefense and Emerging Infectious DiseasesUniversity of LouisvilleLouisvilleUSA
  46. 46.Virology Research CenterSchool of Medicine of Ribeirão Preto, University of São PauloRibeirão PretoBrazil
  47. 47.Department of Plant, Soil, and Food SciencesUniversity “Aldo Moro”BariItaly
  48. 48.Laboratory of Microbiology, Faculty of Veterinary MedicineHokkaido UniversitySapporoJapan
  49. 49.Global Institution for Collaborative Research and Education (GI-CoRE)Hokkaido UniversitySapporoJapan
  50. 50.Biocentre Klein Flottbek, University of HamburgHamburgGermany
  51. 51.FolkhälsomyndighetenStockholmSweden
  52. 52.Department of Plant Pathology, Irrigated Agricultural Research and Extension CenterWashington State UniversityProsserUSA
  53. 53.Evandro Chagas Institute, Ministry of HealthParáBrazil
  54. 54.National Reference Centre for Arboviruses and Haemorrhagic Fever Viruses, Department of Microbiology, Medical SchoolAristotle University of ThessalonikiThessaloníkiGreece
  55. 55.Flavivirus LaboratoryOswaldo Cruz Foundation, Ministry of HealthRio de JaneiroBrazil
  56. 56.Centre for Emerging Zoonotic and Parasitic Diseases, National Institute for Communicable DiseasesNational Health Laboratory ServiceSandringhamSouth Africa
  57. 57.Centre for Viral Zoonoses, Department of Medical Virology, Faculty of Health SciencesUniversity of PretoriaPretoriaSouth Africa
  58. 58.Departamento de Biologia CelularUniversidade de BrasíliaBrasíliaBrazil
  59. 59.Instituto de Biotecnología y Biología Molecular, Centro Científico Tecnológico-La PlataConsejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas-Universidad Nacional de La PlataLa PlataArgentina
  60. 60.Institut Pasteur de DakarDakarSenegal
  61. 61.Institute of Human VirologyUniversity of Maryland School of MedicineBaltimoreUSA
  62. 62.Division of Argo-Environment Research, Western-region Agricultural Research CenterNational Agriculture and Food Food Research OrganizationFukuyamaJapan
  63. 63.MRC-University of Glasgow Centre for Virus ResearchGlasgowScotland, UK
  64. 64.Asian Center for Bioresources and Environmental SciencesUniversity of TokyoTokyoJapan
  65. 65.Nuffield Department of MedicineUniversity of OxfordOxfordUK
  66. 66.BioinformaticsScientific Institute IRCCS “E. Medea”Bosisio PariniItaly
  67. 67.Department of Microbiology, College of MedicineKorea UniversitySeoulRepublic of Korea
  68. 68.Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and PathologyColorado State UniversityFort CollinsUSA
  69. 69.Institute for Sustainable Plant ProtectionNational Research CouncilTurinItaly
  70. 70.Fujian Province Key Laboratory of Plant Virology, Institute of Plant VirologyFujian Agriculture and Forestry UniversityFuzhouChina
  71. 71.Department of Entomology and Plant PathologyNorth Carolina State UniversityRaleighUSA
  72. 72.Departamento de Fitopatologia/Instituto de Biotecnologia Aplicada à AgropecuáriaUniversidade Federal de ViçosaViçosaBrazil
  73. 73.National Institute for Communicable Disease Control and PreventionChinese Center for Disease Control and PreventionBeijingChina
  74. 74.Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center and Institutes of Biomedical SciencesFudan UniversityShanghaiChina
  75. 75.State Key Laboratory for Biology of Plant Diseases and Insect Pests, Institute of Plant ProtectionChinese Academy of Agricultural SciencesBeijingChina
  76. 76.Integrated Research Facility at Fort Detrick (IRF-Frederick), Division of Clinical Research (DCR), National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), National Institutes of Health (NIH)FrederickUSA

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