Archives of Virology

, Volume 164, Issue 4, pp 1037–1048 | Cite as

Genetic evolutionary analysis of soybean mosaic virus populations from three geographic locations in China based on the P1 and CP genes

  • Lei Zhang
  • Jing ShangEmail author
  • Qi Jia
  • Kai Li
  • Hui Yang
  • Huanhuan Liu
  • Zhongqin Tang
  • Xiaoli Chang
  • Min Zhang
  • Wenming Wang
  • Wenyu YangEmail author
Original Article


Soybean mosaic virus (SMV) is one of the major pathogens causing serious soybean losses. Little is known about the genetic structure and evolutionary biology of the SMV population in southwestern China. In this study, 29 SMV isolates were obtained from Sichuan Province, and the genomic regions encoding the first protein (P1) and coat protein (CP) were sequenced. Combined with SMV isolates from the southeastern and northeastern regions of China, the genetic and molecular evolution of SMV was studied. Recombination analysis revealed that intraspecific and interspecific recombination had occurred in the SMV population. A phylogenetic tree based on the P1 gene reflected the geographic origin of the non-interspecific recombinant SMV (SMV-NI), while a tree based on the CP gene did not. Though frequent gene flow of the SMV-NI populations was found between the southeastern and northeastern populations, the southwestern population was relatively independent. Genetic differentiation was significant between the SMV interspecific recombinant (SMV-RI) and the non-interspecific recombinant (SMV-NI) populations. It was interesting to note that there was an almost identical recombination breakpoint in SMV-RI and Watermelon mosaic virus (WMV). Population dynamics showed that SMV-RI might be in an expanding state, while the SMV-NI population is relatively stable.



Soybean mosaic virus


Bean common mosaic virus


Watermelon mosaic virus


Interspecific recombination of SMV


Non-interspecific recombination of SMV


First protein


Coat protein









This study was supported by grants from the National Key Research and Development Plan, Project No. 2017YFD0301704, 2018YFD0200700, and 2018YFD0201006; Sichuan Provincial Science and Technology Project, Project No. 2016NYZ0053; Research Foundation of Sichuan Provincial Education Department (035Z1038); and Scientific Research Foundation of Sichuan Provincial Science and Technology Department (2015NZ0040).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

We have no conflict of interest to declare.

Supplementary material

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Supplementary material 2 (DOC 112 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Austria, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Sichuan Engineering Research Center for Crop Strip Intercropping System and Key Laboratory of Crop Eco‑physiology and Farming System in Southwest ChinaSichuan Agricultural UniversityChengduChina
  2. 2.College of Agronomy and Key Laboratory for Major Crop DiseasesSichuan Agricultural UniversityChengduChina
  3. 3.National Center for Soybean Improvement, National Key Laboratory for Crop Genetics and Germplasm Enhancement, Key Laboratory of Biology and Genetic Improvement of Soybean, Ministry of AgricultureNanjing Agricultural UniversityNanjingChina

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