Archives of Virology

, Volume 164, Issue 1, pp 285–290 | Cite as

Genetic characterization of a novel unique recombinant form of HIV-1 originating from subtype A1 and C in Guangdong Province, China

  • Haohui Deng
  • Shuzhen Liang
  • Huiyuan Liu
  • Min Xu
  • Li Zhuo
  • Hongbo GaoEmail author
Brief Report


The dominant human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) subtypes are CRF01_AE, CRF07_BC and CRF08_BC in Guangdong Province, China. In this study, we report a unique recombinant form (URF) of HIV-1 that was identified in an HIV/hepatitis B virus (HBV)/hepatitis C virus (HCV) triple-infected patient who was an intravenous drug user (IDU) in Heyuan City, Guangdong Province. The near full-length genome was amplified, and the PCR products were sequenced by Sanger’s method. The Recombination Identification Program (RIP 3.0) and jpHMM online tools showed that four subtype C fragments were inserted into the A1 backbone genome in the gag, pol, vpr and nef gene regions. In the phylogenetic tree analysis, the subtype A1 and C fragments clustered with HIV-1 A1 and C reference sequences, respectively. No similar breakpoints between our strain and the other strains in the Los Alamos HIV database were observed. The results of evolutionary analysis using BEAST software showed that the subtype A1 fragment originated from Guangzhou City, China; however, the subtype C fragment originated from East Africa. This is the first report of HIV-1 URF A1C in Guangdong Province, China. The identification of this URF suggested that further dynamic surveillance of new recombinant forms is needed.



This work was supported by grants from the Medical and Health Technology Program of Guangzhou City (20171A011264), Science and Technology Project of Guangdong Province (2015B020226004).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflicts of interest

The author(s) declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

This study was approved by Medical Ethics Committee of Guangzhou Eighth People’s Hospital, Guangzhou Medical University, informed consent was signed before sample collection.

Supplementary material

705_2018_4051_MOESM1_ESM.eps (3 mb)
Supplementary Figure 1. The sequence of A1C.CN.2016.gz8h (8 fragments) in this study was construct the phylogenetic trees by neighbor-joining method using Mega 7.0 software. The fragments were extracted according to the indicated breakpoints by jpHMM online tool (A), and each fragment was analyzed separately (B) (EPS 3023 kb)
705_2018_4051_MOESM2_ESM.fasta (9 kb)
Supplementary material 2 (FASTA 8 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Austria, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Infectious Diseases, Guangzhou Eighth People’s HospitalGuangzhou Medical UniversityGuangzhouChina
  2. 2.Lin He Street Community Health Service CenterGuangzhouChina

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