Archives of Virology

, Volume 163, Issue 12, pp 3403–3407 | Cite as

A case of incidental infection of Hepatitis E virus (HEV) genotype 1 in a domestic pig

  • Santiago MirazoEmail author
  • Cecilia D`Albora
  • Diana Quintero Gil
  • Karina Cabrera
  • Natalia Ramos
  • Sergio Ordúz
  • Juan Arbiza
Brief Report


Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection involving zoonotic genotypes is a public health problem in high-income and non-endemic developing countries. Herein we report the detection of a human genotype 1 (HEV-1) strain infecting a domestic pig, which is not considered a natural reservoir of this genotype. Viral load was quantified in stool by Real-Time qPCR and sequence analyses were performed. Infectivity of the HEV-1 strain was assesed by in vitro isolation in A549 cell line. Results suggest that certain epidemiological settings might favour accidental spillover infection and thus influence the host range restriction of HEV.



Authors would like to thank MVD Gustavo Castro from Ministerio de Gandería, Agricultura y Pesca for excellent technical assistance.


This study was funded by Agencia Nacional de Investigación e Innovación (Grant FCE_2_2011_1_6731).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

All authors declares that they has no conflict of interest

Ethical approval

All applicable international, national, and/or institutional guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed. Ethical Committee resolution no. CBA_02356_013.


  1. 1.
    Nan Y, Zhang YJ (2016) Molecular biology and infection of Hepatitis E virus. Front Microbiol. 7:1419CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Smith DB, Simmonds P, Jameel S, Emerson SU, Harrison TJ, Meng XJ (2014) Consensus proposals for classification of the family Hepeviridae. J Gen Virol. 95:2223–2232CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Sridhar S, Teng JLL, Chiu TH, Lau SKP, Woo PCY (2017) Hepatitis E virus genotypes and evolution: emergence of camel Hepatitis E variants. Int J Mol Sci. 18:1–19Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Pavio N, Meng XJ, Doceul V (2015) Zoonotic origin of hepatitis E. Curr Opin Virol. 10:34–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Doceul V, Bagdassarian E, Demange A, Pavio N (2016) Zoonotic Hepatitis E virus: classification, animal reservoirs and transmission routes. Viruses 8(10):270CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Meng XJ, Yugo DM (2013) Zoonotic and foodborne transmission of Hepatitis E virus. Semin Liver. 33:41–49Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Mirazo S, Gardinali NR, D`Albora C, Verger L, Ottonelli F, Ramos N et al (2017) Serological and virological survey of Hepatitis E virus (HEV) in animal reservoirs from Uruguay reveals elevated prevalences and a very close phylogenetic relationship between swine and human strains. Vet. Microbiol. 213:21–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Jothikumar N, Cromeans TL, Robertson BH, Meng XJ, Hill VR (2006) A broadly reactive one-step real-time RT-PCR assay for rapid and sensitive detection of Hepatitis E virus. J Virol Methods. 131:65–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Meng XJ, Purcell RH, Halbur PG, Lehman JR, Webb DM, Tsareva TS et al (1997) A novel virus in swine is closely related to the human Hepatitis E virus. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 94:9860–9865CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Wang Y, Ling R, Erker JC, Zhang H, Li H, Desai S, Mushahwar IK, Harrison T (1999) A divergent genotype of Hepatitis E virus in Chinese patients with acute hepatitis. J Gen Virol. 80:169–177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Salines M, Andraud M, Rose N (2017) From the epidemiology of Hepatitis E virus (HEV) within the swine reservoir to public health risk mitigation strategies: a comprehensive review. Vet Res. 48(1):31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Mirazo S, Ramos N, Russi JC, Arbiza J (2013) Genetic heterogeneity and subtyping of human Hepatitis E virus isolates from Uruguay. Virus Res. 173:364–370CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Johne R, Reetz J, Ulrich RG, Machnowska P, Sachsenröder J, Nickel P et al (2014) An ORF1-rearranged Hepatitis E virus derived from a chronically infected patient efficiently replicates in cell culture. J Viral Hepat. 21(6):447–456CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Meng XJ, Halbur PG, Haynes JS, Tsareva TS, Bruna JD, Royer RL et al (1998) Experimental infection of pigs with the newly identified swine Hepatitis E virus (swine HEV), but not with human strains of HEV. Arch Virol. 143(7):1405–1415CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Caron M, Enouf V, Than SC, Dellamonica L, Buisson Y, Nicand E (2006) Identification of genotype 1 Hepatitis E virus in samples from swine in Cambodia. J Clin Microbiol. 44(9):3440–3442CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Fierro NA, Realpe M, Meraz-Medina T, Roman S, Panduro A (2016) Hepatitis E virus: an ancient hidden enemy in Latin America. World J Gastroenterol. 22(7):2271–2283CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Mirazo S, Mainardi V, Ramos N, Gerona S, Rocca A, Arbiza J (2014) Indigenous Hepatitis E virus genotype 1 infection, Uruguay. Emerg Infect Dis. 20:171–173CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Austria, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Sección VirologiaFacultad de Ciencias Universidad de la RepúblicaMontevideoUruguay
  2. 2.Facultad de CienciasUniversidad Nacional de ColombiaMedellínColombia
  3. 3.Asociación Uruguaya de Productores de CerdosMontevideoUruguay

Personalised recommendations