Columbid circoviruses detected in free ranging pigeons from Southern Brazil: insights on PiCV evolution
Pigeon circovirus (PiCV) is taxonomically classified as a member of the Circovirus genus, family Circoviridae. The virus contains a single stranded DNA genome of approximately 2 kb, with minor length variations among different isolates. The occurrence of PiCV infections in pigeons (Columba livia) has been documented worldwide over the past 20 years; however, in Brazil there were still no reports on PiCV detection. This study identifies seven PiCV genomes recovered from domestic pigeons of South Brazil through high-throughput sequencing and shows a high frequency of PiCV infection, through quantitative real-time PCR. Phylogenetic classification was performed by maximum likelihood analysis of the full genomes, ORF V1 (Rep) and ORF C1 (Cap). The results show that either full genome or Cap based analysis allowed PiCV classification into five major clades (groups A to E), where Brazilian sequences were classified as A, C or D. Recombination analyses were carried out with Simplot and RDP4 and the results show that both Rep and Cap ORFs contain several recombination hotspots, pointing to an important role for such events in PiCV evolution.
The authors are grateful to Mr. Luis Gustavo Trainini, who kindly gave access to the samples. This work was supported by Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES) and Financiadora de Estudos e Projetos (FINEP, contract 01.10.0783.00). P.M.R. has a CNPq 1A research fellow. This work was carried out as part of the doctoral studies of M.R.L (Programa de Pós-graduação em Ciências Veterinárias, UFRGS).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare no conflict of interest.
- 19.Rambaut A (2009) FigTree v1.4: tree figure drawing tool [Internet]Google Scholar
- 23.Sambrook J, Russel DW (2001) Molecular cloning—a laboratory manual, 3rd edn. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- 25.Bencke GA (2007) POMBOS-DOMÉSTICOS Sugestões para o controle em escolas públicas estaduais. http://www.FzbRsGovBr/Upload/20150514114242Pombos_DomesticosPdf. 23