Archives of Virology

, Volume 163, Issue 11, pp 3119–3124 | Cite as

Cholesterol is important for the entry process of porcine deltacoronavirus

  • Ji Hyun Jeon
  • Changhee LeeEmail author
Brief Report


The present study was conducted to examine whether cellular and/or viral cholesterol levels play a role in porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) replication. Our results showed that depletion of cholesterol from cells or virions by treating them with methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MβCD) diminished PDCoV infection in a dose-dependent manner. The addition of exogenous cholesterol to MβCD-treated cells or virions moderately restored PDCoV infectivity. Furthermore, the pharmacological sequestration of cellular or viral cholesterol efficiently blocked both virus attachment and internalization. Taken together, the current data indicate that the cholesterol present in the cell membrane and viral envelope contributes to PDCoV replication by acting as a key component in viral entry.



This research was supported by the Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education (NRF-2015R1D1A1A09057406).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

This article does not contain any studies with animals performed by any of the authors.

Supplementary material

705_2018_3967_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (15.7 mb)
Supplementary material 1 (PDF 16045 kb)


  1. 1.
    Barman S, Nayak DP (2007) Lipid raft disruption by cholesterol depletion enhances influenza A virus budding from MDCK cells. J Virol 81:12169–12178CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Choi KS, Aizaki H, Lai MM (2005) Murine coronavirus requires lipid rafts for virus entry and cell–cell fusion but not for virus release. J Virol 79:9862–9871CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Guo H, Huang M, Yuan Q, Wei Y, Gao Y, Mao L, Gu L, Tan YW, Zhong Y, Liu D, Sun S (2017) The important role of lipid raft-mediated attachment in the infection of cultured cells by coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus beaudette strain. PLoS One 12:e0170123CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Jang G, Kim SH, Lee YG, Kim S, Lee DS, Lee KK, Lee C (2018) Isolation and characterization of a Korean porcine deltacoronavirus strain KNU16-07. J Vet Sci 19:586–590CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Jeon JH, Lee C (2017) Cellular cholesterol is required for porcine nidovirus infection. Arch Virol 162:3753–3767CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Jung K, Hu H, Saif LJ (2016) Porcine deltacoronavirus infection: etiology, cell culture for virus isolation and propagation, molecular epidemiology and pathogenesis. Virus Res 226:50–59CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Lee S, Lee C (2014) Complete genome characterization of Korean porcine deltacoronavirus strain KOR/KNU14-04/2014. Genome Announc 2:e01191-14CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Li GM, Li YG, Yamate M, Li SM, Ikuta K (2007) Lipid rafts play an important role in the early stage of severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus life cycle. Microbes Infect 9:96–102CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Marthaler D, Jiang Y, Collins J, Rossow K (2014) Complete genome sequence of strain SDCV/USA/Illinois121/2014, a porcine deltacoronavirus from the United States. Genome Announc 2:e00218-14CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Nomura R, Kiyota A, Suzaki E, Kataoka K, Ohe Y, Miyamoto K, Senda T, Fujimoto T (2004) Human coronavirus 229E binds to CD13 in rafts and enters the cell through caveolae. J Virol 78:8701–8708CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Pratelli A, Colao V (2015) Role of the lipid rafts in the life cycle of canine coronavirus. J Gen Virol 96:331–337CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Ren X, Glende J, Yin J, Schwegmann-Wessels C, Herrler G (2008) Importance of cholesterol for infection of cells by transmissible gastroenteritis virus. Virus Res 137:220–224CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Saeng-Chuto K, Lorsirigool A, Temeeyasen G, Vui DT, Stott CJ, Madapong A, Tripipat T, Wegner M, Intrakamhaeng M, Chongcharoen W, Tantituvanont A, Kaewprommal P, Piriyapongsa J, Nilubol D (2017) Different lineage of porcine deltacoronavirus in Thailand, Vietnam and Lao PDR in 2015. Transbound Emerg Dis 64:3–10CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Song D, Zhou X, Peng Q, Chen Y, Zhang F, Huang T, Zhang T, Li A, Huang D, Wu Q, He H, Tang Y (2015) Newly emerged porcine deltacoronavirus associated with diarrhoea in swine in China: identification, prevalence and full-length genome sequence analysis. Transbound Emerg Dis 62:575–580CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Suzuki T, Suzuki Y (2006) Virus infection and lipid rafts. Biol Pharm Bull 29:1538–1541CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Takano T, Satomi Y, Oyama Y, Doki T, Hohdatsu T (2016) Differential effect of cholesterol on type I and II feline coronavirus infection. Arch Virol 161:125–133CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Austria, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Animal Virology Laboratory, BK21 Plus KNU Creative BioResearch Group, School of Life Sciences, College of Natural SciencesKyungpook National UniversityDaeguRepublic of Korea

Personalised recommendations