Archives of Virology

, Volume 163, Issue 11, pp 3113–3117 | Cite as

Detection, sequence analysis, and antibody prevalence of porcine deltacoronavirus in Taiwan

  • Tien-Huan Hsu
  • Hao-Ping Liu
  • Chieh-Yu Chin
  • Chinling Wang
  • Wan-Zhen Zhu
  • Bing-Lin Wu
  • Yu-Chung ChangEmail author
Brief Report


Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) was initially documented in Hong Kong and later in the United States, South Korea, and Thailand. To investigate if PDCoV is also present in Taiwan, three swine coronaviruses—PDCoV, porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), and transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus (TGEV)—were tested using real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) in 172 rectal swab samples from piglets exhibiting diarrhea between January 2016 and May 2017 on 68 pig farms in Taiwan. The rRT-PCR results were positive for PDCoV (29/172, 16.9%), PEDV (36/172, 20.9%), TGEV (2/172, 1.2%), and coinfections (16/172, 9.3%). After cloning and sequencing, PDCoV nucleocapsid genes were analyzed. Phylogeny results indicated that the nucleotide sequences of all isolates were like those reported in other countries. To further trace PDCoV in the period of 2011 to 2015, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to detect antibodies against PDCoV. The results showed that 279 of 1,039 (26.9%) sera were positive for the PDCoV nucleocapsid protein, implying that PDCoV might have existed in Taiwan before 2011.



This study was supported by Grants 105AS-10.1.2-BQ-B1 and 106AS-9.1.2-BQ-B1 from the Bureau of Animal and Plant Health Inspection and Quarantine (BAPHIQ, Taiwan).

Compliance with ethical standards


This study was supported by Grants 105AS-10.1.2-BQ-B1 and 106AS-9.1.2-BQ-B1 from the Bureau of Animal and Plant Health Inspection and Quarantine (BAPHIQ), Council of Agriculture in Taiwan.

Conflict of interest

Tien-Huan Hsu has received grants from the Bureau of Animal and Plant Health Inspection and Quarantine. All authors declare no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors. Rectal swabs were collected from clinically diarrheic piglets in pig farms in Taiwan, while swine sera were obtained from the Animal Disease Control Centers of various counties and the Animal Technology Institute Taiwan.


  1. 1.
    Woo PCY, Lau SK, Lam CSF, Lau CCY, Tsang AKL, Lau JHN, Bai R, Teng JLL, Tsang CCC, Wang M, Zheng BJ, Chan KH, Yuen KY (2012) Discovery of seven novel mammalian and avian coronaviruses in the genus Deltacoronavirus supports bat coronaviruses as the gene source of Alphacoronavirus and Betacoronavirus and avian coronaviruses as the gene source of Gammacoronavirus and Deltacoronavirus. J Virol 86:3995–4008CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Marthaler D, Raymond L, Jiang Y, Collins J, Rossow K, Rovira A (2014) Rapid detection, complete genome sequencing, and phylogenetic analysis of porcine deltacoronavirus. Emerg Infect Dis 20:1347–1350PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Wang L, Byrum B, Zhang Y (2014) Detection and genetic characterization of deltacoronavirus in pigs, Ohio, USA, 2014. Emerg Infect Dis 20:1227–1230PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Wang L, Byrum B, Zhang Y (2014) Porcine coronavirus HKU15 detected in 9 US states, 2014. Emerg Infect Dis 20:1594–1595CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Lee S, Lee C (2014) Complete genome characterization of Korean porcine deltacoronavirus strain KOR/KNU14-04/. Genome Announc 2:e001191–e001204Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Janetanakit T, Lumyai M, Bunpapong N, Boonyapisitsopa S, Chaiyawong S, Nonthabenjawan N, Kesdaengsakonwut S, Amonsin A (2015) Porcine deltacoronavirus, Thailand, 2015. Emerg Infect Dis 22:757–759CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Dong N, Fang L, Zeng S, Sun Q, Chen H, Xiao S (2015) Porcine deltacoronavirus in Mainland China. Emerg Infect Dis 21:2254–2255CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Jung K, Hu H, Eyerly B, Lu Z, Chepngeno J, Saif LJ (2015) Pathogenecity of 2 porcine deltacoronavirus strains in gnotobiotic pigs. Emerg Infect Dis 21:650–654CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Lin CN, Chung WB, Chang SW, Wen CC, Liu H, Chien CH, Chiou MT (2014) US-like strain of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus outbreaks in Taiwan, 2013–2014. J Vet Med Sci 76:1297–1299CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Kumar S, Stecher G, Tamura K (2016) MEGA7: Molecular evolutionary genetics analysis version 7.0 for bigger datasets. Mol Biol Evol 33:1870–1874CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Su M, Li C, Guo D, Wei S, Wang S, Gene Y, Yao S, Gao J, Wang E, Zhao X, Wang Z, Wang J, Wu R, Feng L, Sun D (2016) A recombinant nucleocapsid protein-based indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to detect antibodies against porcine deltacoronavirus. J Vet Med Sci 78:601–606CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Zhai S, Wei W, Li X, Wen X, Zhou X, Zhang H, Lv D, Li F, Wang D (2016) Occurrence and sequence analysis of porcine deltacoronaviruses in southern China. Virol J 13:136CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Hu H, Jung K, Vlasova AN, Chepngeno J, Lu Z, Wang Q, Saifa LJ (2015) Isolation and characterization of Porcine deltacoronavirus from pigs with diarrhea in the United States. J Clin Microbiol 53:1537–1548CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Thachil A, Gerber PF, Xiao CT, Huang YW, Opriessnig T (2015) Development and application of an ELISA for the detection of porcine deltacoronavirus IgG antibodies. PLoS One 10:e0124363CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    McClusky BJ, Haley C, Rovira A, Main R, Zhang Y, Barder S (2016) Retrospective testing and case series study of porcine delta coronavirus in US swine herds. Prev Vet Med 123:185–191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Lin CM, Gao X, Oka T, Vlasova AN, Esseili MA, Wang Q, Saif LJ (2015) Antigenic relationships among porcine epidemic diarrhea virus and transmissible gastroenteritis virus strains. J Virol 89:3332–3342CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Ma Y, Zhang Y, Liang X, Oglesbee M, Krakowka S, Niehaus A, Wang G, Jia A, Song H, Li J (2016) Two-way antigenic cross-reactivity between porcine epidemic diarrhea virus and porcine deltacoronavirus. Vet Microbiol 186:90–96CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Chen Q, Thomas JT, Gemenez-Lirola LG, Hardham JM, Gao Q, GerBer PF, Opriessnig T, Zheng Y, Li G, Gauger PC, Madson DM, Magstadt DR, Zhang J (2016) Evaluation of serological cross-reactivity and cross-neutralization between the United States porcine epidemic diarrhea virus prototype and S-INDEL-variant strains. BMC Vet Res 12:70CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Gimenez-Lirola LG, Zhang J, Carrillo-Avila JA, Chen Q, Magtoto R, Poonsuk K, Baum DH, Piñeyro P, Zimmerman J (2017) Reactivity of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus structural proteins to antibodies against porcine enteric coronaviruses: diagnostic implications. J Clin Microbiol 55:1426–1436CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Austria, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Veterinary Medicine, College of Veterinary MedicineNational Chung-Hsing UniversityTaichungTaiwan ROC
  2. 2.Department of Basic Sciences, College of Veterinary MedicineMississippi State UniversityStarkvilleUSA
  3. 3.Department of Biotechnology, School of Health TechnologyMing Chuan UniversityTaoyuan CityTaiwan ROC

Personalised recommendations