Molecular characterization of two novel sub-sublineages of pigeon paramyxovirus type 1 in China
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Pigeon paramyxovirus type 1 (PPMV-1) infection is enzootic in pigeon flocks and poses a potential risk to the poultry industry in China. To gain insight into the biological characteristics and transmission routes of circulating PPMV-1 in pigeons, 13 PPMV-1 isolates from domestic pigeons isolated during 2011-2015 in Guangxi province, China, were characterized using a pathogenicity assessment and phylogenetic analysis. All PPMV-1 isolates were mesogenic or lentogenic strains and had a mean death time (MDT) in 9-day-old SPF chicken embryos and a intracerebral pathogenicity index (ICPI) values of 54-154 h and 0.00-0.90, respectively. Analysis of the F and HN gene sequences of the PPMV-1 isolates and the Newcastle Disease (ND) vaccine strain La Sota, revealed that the nucleotide sequence similarity of the F and HN genes were all < 85% between the PPMV-1 isolates and La Sota, significantly lower than those > 98% among the PPMV-1 isolates. The amino acids sequence of the F protein at the cleavage site of the 13 PPMV-1 isolates was 112RRQKR↓F117, characteristic of virulent Newcastle disease virus (NDV). All 13 isolates were classified as sublineage 4b by phylogenetic analysis and evolutionary distances, based on the F gene sequences. It was also found that the 13 isolates were divided into two novel sub-groups of sublineage 4b, sub-sublineages 4biig and 4biih. Since these two novel sub-sublineages had two different geographic sources, we speculated that they represent two different transmission routes of PPMV-1 in China. Phylogenetic analysis of these isolates will help to elucidate the sources of the transmission and evolution of PPMV-1 and may help to control PPMV-1 infection in the pigeon industry in China.
This work was supported by grants from the Natural Science Foundation of China (31360612), Guangxi Special Funding on Science and Technology Research (AA17204057), Guangxi Natural Science Foundation (2013GXNSFAA019080) and Guangxi Science and Technology Bureau (grant 1123007-4). The manuscript was kindly reviewed by Dr. Richard Roberts, Aurora, CO 80014, USA.
Tianchao Wei conceived and designed the experiments; Qiaomu Deng, Haiqiong Li, Chao Pan performed the experiments; Qiaomu Deng analyzed data; Ping Wei reviewed and approved the final manuscript.
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Conflicts of interest
The authors declare no conflict of interest.
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