Human-APOBEC3G-dependent restriction of porcine endogenous retrovirus replication is mediated by cytidine deamination and inhibition of DNA strand transfer during reverse transcription
Although human apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme catalytic polypeptide-like 3G (APOBEC3G, hA3G)-mediated deamination is the major mechanism used to restrict the infectivity of a broad range of retroviruses, it is unclear whether porcine endogenous retrovirus (PERV) is affected by hA3G or porcine A3F (poA3F). To determine whether DNA deamination is required for hA3G- and poA3F-dependent inhibition of PERV transmission, we developed VSV-pseudotype PERV-B expressing hA3G, mutant hA3G-E67Q (encapsidation and RNA binding activity-deficient), mutant hA3G-E259Q (deaminase-deficient), or poA3F. hA3G-E67Q decreased virus infectivity by ~ 93% compared to the ~ 99% decrease of viral infectivity by wild-type hA3G, while hA3G-E259Q decreased the infectivity of PERV-B by ~ 35%. These data suggest that cytidine deamination activity is crucial for efficient restriction of PERV by hA3G, but cytidine deamination cannot fully explain the inactivation of PERV by hA3G. Furthermore, differential DNA denaturation PCR (3D-PCR) products from 293T cells infected with PERV-B expressing hA3G mutants were sequenced. G-to-A hypermutation was detected at a frequency of 4.1% for hA3G, 3.4% for hA3G-E67Q, and 4.7% for poA3F. These results also suggest that hA3G and poA3F inhibit PERV by a deamination-dependent mechanism. To examine the effect of hA3G on the production of PERV DNA, genomic DNA was extracted from 293T cells 12 h after infection with PERV expressing hA3G, and this DNA was used as template for real-time PCR. A 50% decrease in minus strand strong stop (-sss) DNA synthesis/transfer was observed in the presence of hA3G. Based on these results, we conclude that hA3G may restrict PERV by both deamination-dependent mechanisms and inhibition of DNA strand transfer during PERV reverse transcription.
This work was supported in part by DANKOOK ChemBio Specialization for Creative Korea-II.
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Conflict of interest
The author of this study has no conflict of interest.
This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.
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