Genetic diversity and phylogenetic analysis of Aleutian mink disease virus isolates in north-east China
- 35 Downloads
Aleutian mink disease is the most important disease in the mink-farming industry worldwide. So far, few large-scale molecular epidemiological studies of AMDV, based on the NS1 and VP2 genes, have been conducted in China. Here, eight new Chinese isolates of AMDV from three provinces in north-east China were analyzed to clarify the molecular epidemiology of AMDV. The seroprevalence of AMDV in north-east China was 41.8% according to counterimmuno-electrophoresis. Genetic variation analysis of the eight isolates showed significant non-synonymous substitutions in the NS1 and VP2 genes, especially in the NS1 gene. All eight isolates included the caspase-recognition sequence NS1:285 (DQTD↓S), but not the caspase recognition sequence NS1:227 (INTD↓S). The LN1 and LN2 strains had a new 10-amino-acid deletion in-between amino acids 28–37, while the JL3 strain had a one-amino-acid deletion at position 28 in the VP2 protein, compared with the AMDV-G strain. Phylogenetic analysis based on most of NS1 (1755 bp) and complete VP2 showed that the AMDV genotypes did not cluster according to their pathogenicity or geographic origin. Local and imported ADMV species are all prevalent in mink-farming populations in the north-east of China. This is the first study to report the molecular epidemiology of AMDV in north-east China based on most of NS1 and the complete VP2, and further provides information about polyG deletions and new variations in the amino acid sequences of NS1 and VP2 proteins. This report is a good foundation for further study of AMDV in China.
This work was supported by a grant from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (31272565).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
All authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
All animal studies were approved by the ethics committee of the Jilin Institute of Endemic Disease Control and Prevention. All the mink were treated in strict accordance with the Guidelines for the Use and Care of Laboratory Animals from the Chinese CDC and the Rules for the Implementation of Laboratory Animal Medicine (1998) from the Ministry of Health, China.
Informed consent was obtained from individual farmers for the samples used in this study.
- 4.Bloom ME, Best SM, Yayes SF, Wells RD, Wolfinbarger JB, Mckenna R, Agbandje-mckenna M (2001) Identification of Aleutian mink disease parvovirus capsid sequences mediating antibody-dependent enhancement of infection, virus neutralization, and immune complex formation. J Virol 75:11116–11127CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 17.Fournier-Chambrillon C, Aasted B, Perrot A, Pontier D, Sauvage F, Artois M, Cassiède J-M, Chauby X, Dal Molin A, Simon C (2004) Antibodies to Aleutianmink disease parvovirus in free-ranging European mink (Mustela lutreola) and other small carnivores from southwestern France. J Wildl Dis 40:394–402CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 26.Oie KL, Durrant G, Wolfinbarger JB, Martin D, Costello F, Perryman S, Hogan D, Hadlow WJ, Bloom ME (1996) The relationship between capsid protein (VP2) sequence and pathogenicity of Aleutian mink disease parvovirus (ADV): a possible role for raccoons in the transmission of ADV infections. J Virol 70:852–861PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 36.Zhang JL, Liu WX, Chen WY, Li CC, Xie MM, Bu ZG (2016) Development of an immuno-peroxidase monolayer assay for the detection of antibodies against peste des petits ruminants virus based on BHK-21 cell line stably expressing the goat signaling lymphocyte activation molecule. PLoS One 11:e0165088CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar