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Adenovirus 5 produces obesity and adverse metabolic, morphological, and functional changes in the long term in animals fed a balanced diet or a high-fat diet: a study on hamsters

  • Daniel A. Montes-Galindo
  • Ana C. Espiritu-Mojarro
  • Valery Melnikov
  • Norma A. Moy-López
  • Alejandro D. Soriano-Hernandez
  • Hector R. Galvan-Salazar
  • Jorge Guzman-Muñiz
  • Jose Guzman-Esquivel
  • Margarita L. Martinez-Fierro
  • Iram P. Rodriguez-Sanchez
  • Brenda Paz-Michel
  • Sergio A. Zaizar-Fregoso
  • Carmen A. Sanchez-Ramirez
  • Mario Ramirez-Flores
  • Ivan Delgado-EncisoEmail author
Original Article

Abstract

Adenovirus 5 (Ad-5) infection is a common cause of acute respiratory infections and the main vector used in gene therapy. There are few studies on the relationship of Ad-5 to obesity. In the present study, we evaluated the chronic effects of Ad-5 infection on golden (Syrian) hamsters fed either a balanced diet (BD) or a high-fat diet (HFD). After a single inoculation with Ad-5 (1 × 107 pfu), the body weight of the animals was measured weekly. Medium-term (22 weeks) serum biochemical analyses and long-term (44 weeks) liver morphology, adiposity, and locomotive functionality (movement velocity) assessments were carried out. In the animals fed the BD, adenovirus infection produced hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia. In the long term, it produced a 57% increase in epididymal pad fat and a 30% body weight gain compared with uninoculated animals. In addition, morphological changes related to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) were observed. The animals fed the HFD had similar but more severe changes. In addition, the hamsters presented an obesity paradox: at the end of the study, the animals that had the most morphological and functional changes (significantly reduced movement velocity) had the lowest body weight. Despite the fact that an HFD appears to be a more harmful factor in the long term than adenovirus infection alone, infection could increase the severity of harmful effects in individuals with an HFD. Epidemiological studies are needed to evaluate the effect of adenovirus as a precursor of chronic liver and cardiovascular diseases, including the chronic effects of gene therapy.

Notes

Acknowledgements

The present study was completed using equipment resources obtained through Grant no. 270485 from the 2016-INFRAESTRUCTURA-CONACYT (author ADSH) and Grant no. 272792 from the 2016-FOSISS-CONACYT (author IDE).

Compliance with ethical standards

Disclosure of potential conflicts of interest

Esteripharma Mexico SA de CV provided support in the form of salaries for author BPM but did not have any additional role in the study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. That commercial affiliation does not alter our adherence to the “Archives of Virology” policies on sharing data and materials. The others authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

The trials complied with the national and international legal and ethical requirements applicable to pre-clinical research. The experimental protocols were approved by the Research Ethics Committee of the School of Medicine of the University of Colima, Mexico (Protocol Number: 14-016). The animals were handled according to institutional guidelines, the Mexican official norm regulating laboratory animal use (NOM-062-ZOO-1999), and the guide for the care and use of laboratory animals issued by the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (2011). All animals were euthanized according to the American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA) Guidelines for the Euthanasia of Animals: 2013 Edition.

Consent for publication

All authors consent to publication.

Supplementary material

705_2018_4132_MOESM1_ESM.xlsx (25 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (XLSX 24 kb)
705_2018_4132_MOESM2_ESM.docx (28 kb)
Supplementary material 2 (DOCX 28 kb)

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Austria, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Daniel A. Montes-Galindo
    • 1
    • 2
  • Ana C. Espiritu-Mojarro
    • 2
    • 3
  • Valery Melnikov
    • 1
  • Norma A. Moy-López
    • 4
  • Alejandro D. Soriano-Hernandez
    • 1
    • 2
  • Hector R. Galvan-Salazar
    • 2
    • 3
  • Jorge Guzman-Muñiz
    • 4
  • Jose Guzman-Esquivel
    • 3
  • Margarita L. Martinez-Fierro
    • 5
  • Iram P. Rodriguez-Sanchez
    • 6
  • Brenda Paz-Michel
    • 7
  • Sergio A. Zaizar-Fregoso
    • 1
    • 2
  • Carmen A. Sanchez-Ramirez
    • 1
  • Mario Ramirez-Flores
    • 1
  • Ivan Delgado-Enciso
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Molecular Medicine, School of MedicineUniversity of ColimaColimaMexico
  2. 2.Department of ResearchCancerology State Institute,Colima State Health ServicesColimaMexico
  3. 3.Department of ResearchMexican Social Security InstituteColimaMexico
  4. 4.Laboratory of Neuroscience, School of PsychologyUniversity of ColimaColimaMexico
  5. 5.Molecular Medicine Laboratory, Academic Unit of Human Medicine and Health SciencesZacatecas Autonomous UniversityZacatecasMexico
  6. 6.Molecular and Structural Physiology Laboratory, School of Biological SciencesUniversidad Autónoma de Nuevo LeónMonterreyMexico
  7. 7.Esteripharma MexicoMexico CityMexico

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