The Urban Heat Footprint (UHF)—a new unified climatic and statistical framework for urban warming

  • Ido NevatEmail author
  • M. O. Mughal
  • Xian-Xiang Li
  • Conrad H. Philipp
  • Heiko Aydt
Original Paper


In this paper we combine statistical modelling and climate models in order to develop a unified statistical framework for quantifying the Urban Heat Footprint (UHF) effect, thus quantifying the urban warming phenomenon. The UHF quantifies the urban warming at any location in the spatio-temporal domain due to different effects, such as anthropogenic effects and climatic effects. These effects can be controlled and configured by our modelling approach, thus allowing the evaluation of different scenarios of interest. We first provide a definition of UHF followed by definitions of the Anthropogenic Effects (AE) components. Then, based on those definitions, we define the fundamental quantity of UHF spatial-temporal stochastic (random) processes. Next, we propose several metrics for quantifying and summarising the UHF, which are statistical estimators. These provide insightful summaries of the population parameters of the UHF stochastic process, and can be easily calculated in practice. To illustrate how our framework can be used, we utilise a Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, and provide detailed examples of various UHF metrics, based on real data of Singapore.


Urban Heat Footprint (UHF) Anthropogenic effects Climate model 


Funding information

The research was conducted under the Cooling Singapore project, funded by Singapore’s National Research Foundation (NRF) under its Virtual Singapore programme. Cooling Singapore is a collaborative project led by the Singapore-ETH Centre (SEC), with the Singapore-MIT Alliance for Research and Technology (SMART), TUMCREATE (established by the Technical University of Munich), the National University of Singapore (NUS), and the Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A*STAR).


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Austria, part of Springer Nature 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Cooling SingaporeTUMCREATESingaporeSingapore
  2. 2.Cooling SingaporeSingapore-MIT Alliance for Research and Technology (SMART Centre)SingaporeSingapore
  3. 3.Cooling SingaporeSingapore-ETH Centre (SEC)SingaporeSingapore

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