Dominant modes of CMIP3/5 models simulating northwest Pacific circulation anomalies during post-ENSO summer and their SST dependence

  • Weichen Tao
  • Gang HuangEmail author
  • Pengfei Wang
  • Yang Liu
  • Guanhuan Wen
  • Danhong Dong
Original Paper


Based on an intermodel empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis, this study has investigated the dominant modes of northwest Pacific (NWP) circulation anomalies during post-ENSO summer and their SST dependence involved in 47 Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 3 and phase 5 models. The first EOF mode, explaining 33.3% of total intermodel variance, features an anomalous cyclone over the tropical NWP and is controlled by the positive SST anomalies over the equatorial western Pacific (WP). The equatorial WP warming enhances local convection with lower- (upper-) level convergence (divergence), and the anomalous cyclone is a direct Rossby wave response to positive rainfall anomalies there. The second EOF mode, explaining 24.6% of total intermodel variance, is characterized by an anomalous NWP anticyclone (NWPAC). The related SST anomalies show warming in the tropical Indian Ocean (TIO) and equatorial central and eastern Pacific (CEP) and cooling in the NWP. The TIO (CEP) warming induces local wet anomalies, which trigger eastward (westward) Kelvin (Rossby) wave, resulting the adjustment of large-scale circulation. The resultant lower- (upper-) level divergence (convergence) suppresses convection over the NWP, inducing the anomalous NWPAC as a Rossby wave response. The NWP cooling influences NWPAC via positive thermodynamic feedback between local SST and circulation anomalies. Model results further confirm the role of leading mode-related SST anomalies affecting the simulation of NWP circulation.



We acknowledge the World Climate Research Program’s Working Group on Coupled Modeling, which is responsible for CMIP, and we thank the climate modeling groups (listed in Table 1 of this paper) for producing and making available their model output. For CMIP, the U.S. Department of Energy’s Program for Climate Model Diagnosis and Intercomparison provides coordinating support and led development of software infrastructure in partnership with the Global Organization for Earth System Science Portals. We thank two anonymous reviewers as well as the editor for their useful comments. This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (41425019, 41831175, 41721004, and 41705068), the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (2016LH0005 and 2016M600116), and the Natural Science Foundation of Guangdong Province (2016A030310009).


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Austria, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Weichen Tao
    • 1
    • 2
  • Gang Huang
    • 1
    • 3
    • 4
    • 5
    Email author
  • Pengfei Wang
    • 1
    • 6
  • Yang Liu
    • 7
  • Guanhuan Wen
    • 8
  • Danhong Dong
    • 1
  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Numerical Modeling for Atmospheric Sciences and Geophysical Fluid Dynamics, Institute of Atmospheric PhysicsChinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina
  2. 2.Earth System Science Interdisciplinary CenterUniversity of MarylandCollege ParkUSA
  3. 3.Laboratory for Regional Oceanography and Numerical ModelingQingdao National Laboratory for Marine Science and TechnologyQingdaoChina
  4. 4.Joint Center for Global Change StudiesBeijingChina
  5. 5.University of Chinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina
  6. 6.Center for Monsoon System Research, Institute of Atmospheric PhysicsChinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina
  7. 7.National Meteorological CentreChina Meteorological AdministrationBeijingChina
  8. 8.Guangzhou Institute of Tropical and Marine MeteorologyChina Meteorological AdministrationGuangzhouChina

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