Toward coupling hydrological and meteorological drought characteristics in Lake Urmia Basin, Iran
- 52 Downloads
Investigation of precipitation characteristics on daily, monthly, and annual time scales can contribute to gaining important information related to temporal and spatial distribution of precipitation or even flow rate challenges (e.g., hydrological droughts). The low levels of long-term precipitation and high variability in different time scales are considered the main inherent characteristics of climate in Iran. Due to the direct effects of precipitation on water resources, especially on the river flow rate, it is necessary to assess the efficient indices to visualize the variations in the components of water resources. One of the main indices is the precipitation concentration index (PCI) which is known as a strong indicator of the precipitation distribution generally used on annual and seasonal scales. In this study, drought analysis in the Lake Urmia Basin (LUB) located in northwest of Iran was performed with the daily river flow rate and monthly precipitation values within the period of 1984–2013. The results of changes in precipitation indicated that the irregularity of precipitation distribution had grown in spring months. Also, due to the diminishing precipitation trend on the annual time scale, PCI index also increased. It is concluded that LUB detected a significant descending trend on the annual, spring, and winter time scales in the last 30 years. The PCI values were proved high irregularity in summer with PCI amount of 20.1 and most regularity in winter with PCI amount of 10.4. This paper also aims to assess the effects of PCI on the river flow rate along with the flow shortness volume values using hydrometric and rain gauge stations within LUB. The results obtained from the changes in river flow rate and flow shortness volume revealed that the river flow rate has mostly a falling trend. Finally, it was observed that the time when the river flow rate data changed happened after beginning of changes in the precipitation data. A decrease in inflow from 900 million cubic meters up to 14 billion cubic meters with high flow shortness volume may happen in worst conditions. These results highlighted the importance of applying water resources management in LUB.
KeywordsFlow shortness volume Lake Urmia Meteorological drought Precipitation concentration index Time of change point
The authors would like to thank West Azerbaijan Regional Water Authority for providing river flow and precipitation data.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- Adegun O, Balogun I, Adeaga O (2012) Precipitation concentration changes in Owerri and Enugu Special Publication of the Nigerian Association of Hydrological Sciences. pp 383–391Google Scholar
- Besharat S, Khalili K, Tahrudi MN (2014) Evaluation of SAM and Moments methods for estimation of log Pearson type III parameters (Case Study: daily flow of rivers in Lake Urmia basin). J Appl Environ Biol Sci 4(S1):24–32Google Scholar
- Gan TY, Ito M, Hülsmann S, Qin X, Lu XX, Liong SY, Koivusalo H (2016) Possible climate change/variability and human impacts, vulnerability of drought-prone regions, water resources and capacity building for. Afr Hydrol Sci J 61(7):1209–1226Google Scholar
- Harding R, Reynard N, Kay A (2014) Current understanding of climate change impacts on extreme events hydrometeorological hazards: interfacing science and policy 27–47Google Scholar
- Kendall MG (1948) Rank correlation methods Oxford England: Griffin 202 pagesGoogle Scholar
- Khalili K, Nazeri Tahrudi M, Khanmohammadi N (2014) Trend analysis of precipitation in recent two decade over. Iran J Appl Environ Biol Sci 4:5–10Google Scholar
- Mann HB (1945) Nonparametric tests against trend Econometrica. J Econ Soc 13:245–259Google Scholar
- Thiel H (1950) A rank-invariant method of linear and polynomial regression analysis, Part 3 In Proceedings of Koninalijke Nederlandse Akademie van Weinenschatpen A. 53:1397–1412Google Scholar
- Valli M, Shanti Sree K, Murali Krishna IV (2013) Analysis of precipitation concentration index and rainfall prediction in various agro-climatic zones of Andhra Pradesh. India Int Res J Environ Sci 2(5):53–61Google Scholar