Theoretical and Applied Climatology

, Volume 138, Issue 3–4, pp 1539–1562 | Cite as

Impacts of climate changes on the maximum and minimum temperature in Iran

  • Gholamabbas Fallah-GhalhariEmail author
  • Fahimeh Shakeri
  • Abbasali Dadashi-Roudbari
Original Paper


In this paper, trends of minimum and maximum temperatures in Iran were studied using time series of daily minimum and maximum temperatures of 45 meteorological stations from 1976 to 2005 (as the baseline period). Mann-Kendall test, for maximum and minimum temperature, was obtained 1.85 and 3.56, respectively, which was positive and significant. The slope of the trend line for maximum and minimum temperature was obtained 0.23 and 0.39 °C decade−1, respectively. In this study, the trend of extreme temperature indicators was also evaluated. According to the obtained results, in annual terms, TX10, FDO, TN10, and IDO indices have had a negative trend at most stations, but TX90, TR20, TNx, TNx, TXn, TN90, SDI, and SU25 indices showed a positive trend. In the seasonal scale, the indices of cold days (TX10) and cold nights (TN10) showed significant negative trends in most seasons. Warm days (TX90) and warm nights (TN90) showed significant positive trends at most stations. The results of future simulations using several general circulation models in different time periods showed that the highest increase in maximum and minimum temperature related to the RCP8.5 scenario in periods of 2071 to 2099. The results also showed that northwest of Iran would have the highest temperature rise. The results also showed that the probability density function of the minimum and maximum temperatures will shift to warmer temperatures. This could be an indication of climate change in the future decades in Iran.



The authors express their gratitude to the Iranian Meteorological Organization for providing the necessary data. We thank the climate modeling teams for making available their model data.


  1. Abassi F, Habibi NM, Goli ML, Malbousi S (2010) Climate change assessment over Iran in the future decades using MAGICC-SCENGEN model. Natl Geophys Res 42(72):91–110Google Scholar
  2. Ahmad I, Tang D, Wang TM, Wagan B (2015) Precipitation trends over time using Mann-Kendall and Spearman’s rho tests in Swat River basin, Pakistan. Adv Meteorol 2015:1–15. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Alexander LV, Zhang X, Peterson TC, Caesar J, Gleason B (2006) Global observed changes in daily climate extremes of temperature and precipitation. J Geophys Res 111:D05109. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Alexandre MR, Ricardo MT, Fátima ES (2011) Evolution of extreme temperatures over Portugal: recent changes and future scenarios. Clim Res 48:177–192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Alyssa B, Jun W, Olivier L (2014) Associations of meteorology with adverse pregnancy outcomes: a systematic review of preeclampsia, preterm birth and birth weight. Int J Environ Res Public Health 11(1):91–172Google Scholar
  6. Austin SE, Ford JD, Berrang-Ford L, Araos M, Parker S, Fleury MD (2015) Public health adaptation to climate change in Canadian jurisdictions. Int J Environ Res Public Health 12:623–651. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Awal R, Haimanote KB, Fares A (2016) Analysis of potential future climate and climate extremes in the Brazos Headwaters Basin, Texas. Water 8:603. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Babaeiyan I, Najafi-Nik Z, Zabol Abbassi F, Habibi Nokhandan M, Adab H, Malbousi S (2010) Climate change assessment over Iran during 2010–2039 by using statistical downscaling of ECHO- G model. 7(16):135–152Google Scholar
  9. Babur M, Singh BK, Shrestha S, Kawasaki A, Tripathi NK (2016) Assessment of climate change impact on reservoir inflows using multi climate-models under RCPs—the case of Mangla Dam in Pakistan. Water 8:389. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Baddoo T, Guan Y, Zhang D, Andam-Akorful S, (2015) Rainfall variability in the Huangfuchuang Watershed and its relationship with ENSO. Water 7(12):3243–3262Google Scholar
  11. Barichivich J, Briffa KR, Myneni R, Van der Schrier G, Dorigo, Wouter, Tucker CJ, Osborn TJ, Melvin TM (2014) Temperature and snow-mediated moisture controls of summer photosynthetic activity in northern terrestrial ecosystems between 1982 and 2011. Remote Sens 6:1390–1431. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Beltran AJ, Wu J, Laurent O (2014) Associations of meteorology with adverse pregnancy outcomes: a systematic review of preeclampsia, preterm birth and birth weight. Int J Environ Res Public Health 11:91–172. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Boccolari M, Malmusi S (2013) Changes in temperature and precipitation extremes observed in Modena, Italy. Atmos Res 122:16–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Brown SJ, Caesar J, Ferro CAT (2008) Global changes in extreme daily temperature since 1950. J Geophys Res Atmos 113:D05115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Brunetti M, Maugeri M, Nanni T (2001) Changes in total precipitation, rainy days and extreme events in northeastern Italy. Int J Climatol 21:861–871CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bürger G, Murdock TQ, Werner AT, Sobie SR, Cannon AJ (2012) Downscaling extremes—an intercomparison of multiple statistical methods for present climate. J Clim 25(12):4366–4388CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Calleja JGP, Recondo JF, Peón C, Fernández J, Cruz DDLS (2016) A new method for the estimation of broadband apparent albedo using hyperspectral airborne hemispherical directional reflectance factor values. Remote Sens 8:183. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Chaibou Begou J, Jomaa S, Benabdallah S, Bazie P, Afouda A, Rode M (2016) Multi-site validation of the SWAT model on the Bani catchment: model performance and predictive uncertainty. Water 8:178. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Chandra Saha G (2015) Climate change induced precipitation effects on water resources in the peace region of British Columbia, Canada. Climate 3:264–282. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Chong J, Xingmin M, Fei W, Guangju Z (2016) Analysis of extreme temperature events in the Qinling Mountains and surrounding area during 1960–2012. Quatern Int 392:155–167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Choudhary A, Dimri AP (2018) Performance of an ensemble of CORDEX-SA simulations in representing maximum and minimum temperature over the Himalayan region. Theor Appl Climatol 136:1047–1072. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Cropper TE, Cropper PE (2016) A 133-year record of climate change and variability from Sheffield, England. Climate 4:46. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Dao NK, Hoang TT (2016) Analysis of changes in precipitation and extremes events in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Procedia Eng 142:229–235CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Darand M, Masoodian A, Nazaripour H, Mansouri Daneshvar MR (2015) Spatial and temporal trend analysis of temperature extremes based on Iranian climatic database (1962–2004). Arab J Geosci 8:8469–8480. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Davis LC, Hoffman MT, Roberts W (2016) Recent trends in the climate of Namaqualand, a megadiverse arid region of South Africa. S Afr J Sci 12(3–4):1–9 Google Scholar
  26. Daza IG, Bergasa LM, Bronte S, Yebes JJ, Almazan J, Arroyo R (2014) Fusion of optimized indicators from advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) for driver drowsiness detection. Sensors 2014(14):1106–1131. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Dharmaveer S, Sanjay KJ, Rajan DG, Sudhir K, Shive PR, Neha J (2016) Analyses of observed and anticipated changes in extreme climate events in the northwest Himalaya. Climate 4:9. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Dulamsuren, D., Jong, P.K., Jong A.C., Woo, S.L., 2015. Long-term trends in daily temperature extremes over Mongolia: weather and climate extremes. 8, 26–33Google Scholar
  29. Endo N, Matsumoto J, Lwin T (2009) Trends in precipitation extremes over Southeast Asia. SOLA. 5:168–171. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Fallah Ghalhari GA, Dadashi Roudbari A (2018) An investigation on thermal patterns in Iran based on spatial autocorrelation. Theor Appl Climatol 131(3–4):865–876CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Fallah Ghalhari GA, Khoshhal Dastjerdi J, Habibi Nokhandan M (2012) Using Mann Kendal and t-test methods in identifying trends of climatic elements: a case study of northern parts of Iran. Manag Sci Lett 2(3):911–920CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Farajzadeh M, Oji R, Cannon AJ, Ghavidel Y, Bavani AM (2015) An evaluation of single-site statistical downscaling techniques in terms of indices of climate extremes for the Midwest of Iran. Theor Appl Climatol 120(1–2):377–390CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Filahi S, Tanarhte M, El Mouhir M, Tramblay Y (2016) Trends in indices of daily temperature and precipitations extremes in Morocco. Theor Appl Climatol 124(3–4):959–972CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Fonseca D, Carvalho MJ, Marta-Almeida M, Melo-Gonçalves P, Rocha A (2016) Recent trends of extreme temperature indices for the Iberian Peninsula. Phys Chem Earth Parts A/B/C, In Press, Accepted Manuscript, Available online 30 December 2015 94:66–76CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Gabella MNA (2015) Risk assessment and risk management in managed aquifer recharge and recycled water reuse: the case of Sabadell, Ph.D. thesis, University of Barcelona. pp. 368Google Scholar
  36. Garcia Cueto O, Tejeda-Martinez A, Bojorquez-Morales G (2009) Urbanization effects upon the air temperature in Mexicali, B. C., México. Atmósfera 22(4):349–365Google Scholar
  37. Ghanghermeh AA, Roshan GR, Shahkooeei E (2015) Evaluation of the effect of Siberia’s high pressure extension on daily minimum temperature changes in Iran. Modeling Earth Systems and Environment 1(3):20.Google Scholar
  38. Gómez JA, Infante-Amate J, González de Molina M, Vanwalleghem T, Taguas EV, Lorite I (2014) Olive cultivation, its impact on soil erosion and its progression into yield impacts in Southern Spain in the past as a key to a future of increasing climate uncertainty. Agriculture 4:170–198. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Hermida L, Sánchez JL, López L, Berthet C, Dessens J, García-Ortega E, Merino A (2013, 2013) Climatic trends in hail precipitation in France: spatial, altitudinal, and temporal variability. Sci World J:494971, 10 pages.
  40. Hesse C, Krysanova V (2016) Modeling climate and management change impacts on water quality and in-stream processes in the Elbe River basin. Water 8:40. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. IPCC (2007) Climate change 2007: the physical science basis. In: Solomon S, Qin D, Manning M, Chen Z, Marquis M, Averyt KB, Tignor M, Miller HL (eds) Contribution of working group i to the fourth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  42. IPCC (2012) In: Field CB, Barros V, Stocker TF, Qin D, Dokken DJ, Ebi KL, Mastrandrea MD, Mach KJ, Plattner G-K, Allen SK, Tignor M, Midgley PM (eds) Managing the risks of extreme events and disasters to advance climate change adaptation. a special report of working groups I and II of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 582 ppGoogle Scholar
  43. IPCC (2014) In: Core Writing Team, Pachauri RK, Meyer LA (eds) Climate change 2014: synthesis report. The contribution of working groups I, II and III to the fifth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. IPCC, Geneva 151 ppGoogle Scholar
  44. Iran’s First National Communication to UNFCCC (2003) Environmental protection organization, Tehran, Iran, 206 ppGoogle Scholar
  45. Jang S, Kavvas ML (2013) Downscaling global climate simulations to regional scales: statistical downscaling versus dynamical downscaling. J Hydrol Eng 20(1):A4014006Google Scholar
  46. Jang S, Kavvas ML, Ishida K, Trinh T, Ohara N, Kure S, Carr KJ (2017) A performance evaluation of dynamical downscaling of precipitation over northern California. Sustainability 9(8):1457CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Judit B, Rita P (2007) Regional analysis of extreme temperature and precipitation indices for the Carpathian Basin from 1946 to 2001. Glob Planet Chang 57(1–2):83–95Google Scholar
  48. Justin TS, Scott MR (2016) Projecting changes in regional temperature and precipitation extremes in the United States. Weather and Climate Extremes 11:28–40Google Scholar
  49. Kalabokidis, K., Palaiologou, P., Gerasopoulos, E., Giannakopoulos, C., Kostopoulou, Effie. Zerefos, C., 2015. Effect of climate change projections on forest fire behavior and values-at-risk in southwestern Greece. Forests, 6, 2214–2240; DOI:
  50. Karmalkar AV, Taylor MA, Campbell J, Stephenson T, New M, Centella A, Benzanilla A, Charlery J (2013) A review of observed and projected changes in climate for the islands in the Caribbean. Atmósfera 26(2):283–309CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Katz RW, Brown BG (2004) Extreme events in a changing climate: variability is more important than averages: climatic change. 21:289–302Google Scholar
  52. Keggenhoff I, Elizbarashvili M, Amiri-Farahani A, King L (2014) Trends in daily temperature and precipitation extremes over Georgia, 1971–2010. Weather Clim Extremes. 4:75–85CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Kendall M (1975) Multivariate analysis, Charles Griffin & Company, ISBN 10: 0852642342 ISBN 13: 9780852642344Google Scholar
  54. Keskitalo ECH, Bergh J, Felton A, Björkman C, Berlin M, Axelsson P, Ring E, Ågren A, Roberge JM, Klapwijk MJ, Boberg J (2016) Adaptation to climate change in Swedish forestry. Forests 7:28. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Klein Tank AMG, Können GP (2003) Trends in indices of daily temperature and precipitation extremes in Europe, 1946-99. J Clim 16:3665–3680CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Kus A, Isik Y, Cakir MC, Coşkun S, Özdemir K (2015) Thermocouple and infrared sensor-based measurement of temperature distribution in metal cutting. Sensors 15:1274–1291. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Kwak J, Kim S, Kim G, Singh VP, Hong S, Kim HS (2015) Scrub typhus incidence modeling with meteorological factors in South Korea. Int J Environ Res Public Health 12:7254–7273.
  58. Labajo AL, Egido M (2014) Definition and temporal evolution of the heat and cold waves over the Spanish Central Plateau from 1961 to 2010. Atmósfera 27(3):273–286CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Labajo JL, Labajo AL, Martín Q, Piorno A, Morales C, Ortega MT (2006) Análisis del comportamiento reciente de los valores extremos de temperatura en la zona Madrid-Castilla La Mancha. In: Cuadrat JM, Saz MA, Vicente SM, Lanjeri S, De Luis M, González JC (eds) Clima, sociedad y medio ambiente. Publicaciones de la Asociación Española de Climatología, Santander, pp 157–165 Serie A, 5Google Scholar
  60. Labajo JL, Labajo AL, Egido M, Martín Q, Morales C, Ortega MT (2012) Analysis of the maximum daily temperature evolution on the Spanish Central Plateau. Atmósfera 25:235–252Google Scholar
  61. Lashkari H, Mohammadi Z (2018) Study on the role of annual movements of Arabian subtropical high pressure in the late start of precipitation in southern and southwestern Iran. Theor Appl Climatol.
  62. Locherer M, Hank T, Danner M, Mauser W (2015) Retrieval of seasonal leaf area index from simulated EnMAP data through optimized LUT-based inversion of the PROSAIL model. Remote Sens 7:10321–10346. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Lopez JO, Ariza BL, Valdez-Cepeda RD (2011) Extreme temperature variation in the ‘Comarca Lagunera and Nearby Areas, vol XVII, Edición Especial edn. Revista Chapingo Serie Ciencias Forestales y del Ambiente, pp 45–61Google Scholar
  64. Lopez-Diaz F, Conde C, Sanchez O (2013) Analysis of indices of extreme temperature events at Apizaco, Tlaxcala, Mexico: 1952-2003. Atmósfera. 26(3):349–358CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Mann HB (1945) Nonparametric tests against trend. Econometrical: Journal of the Econometric Society 13:245–259CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Marcelino QVII, Jun M, Ikumi A, Hiroshi GT, Hisayuki K, Thelma AC (2014) Long-term trends and variability of rainfall extremes in the Philippines. Atmos Res 137(1–13)Google Scholar
  67. Marofi S, Sohrabi MM, Mohammadi K, Sabziparvar AA, Zare-Abyaneh H (2011) Investigation of meteorological extreme events over coastal regions of Iran. Theor Appl Climatol 103:401–412. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Masoudian A (2012) Iranian Climate, Sharia Toos Publishing, Mashhad, First Printing, Mashhad, 288 p. (In Persian)Google Scholar
  69. Massari C, Brocca L, Tarpanelli A, Moramarco T (2015) Data assimilation of satellite soil moisture into rainfall-runoff modelling: a complex recipe? Remote Sens 7:11403–11433. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Mearns LO, Hulme M, Carter TR, Leemans R, Lal M, Whetton P (2001) Climate scenario development. In: Houghton JT, Ding Y, Griggs DJ, Noguer M, Vander Linden PJ, Dai X, Maskell K, Johnson CA (eds) Climate change 2001: the scientific basis, contribution of working group I to the third assessment report of the IPCC. Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, pp 583–638Google Scholar
  71. Moberg A, Jones PD, Barriendos M, Bergström H, Camuffo D, Cocheo C, Davies TD, Demarée G, Martin-Vide J, Maugeri M, Rodriguez R, Verhoeve T (2000) Day-to-day temperature variability trends in 160- to 275-year-long European instrumental records. J Geophys Res 105:22849–22868CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Motagh M, Walter TR, Sharifi MA, Fielding E, Schenk A, Anderssohn J, Zschau J (2008) Land subsidence in Iran caused by widespread water reservoir overexploitation. Geophys Res Lett 35(16)Google Scholar
  73. Ozer P, Mahamoud A (2013) Recent extreme precipitation and temperature changes in Djibouti City (1966–2011). J Climatol 2013:928501, 8 pages. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Pechlivanidis IG, Olsson J, Bosshard T, Sharma D, Sharma KC (2016) Multi-basin modelling of future hydrological fluxes in the Indian subcontinent. Water 8:177. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Peng S, Huang J, Sheehy JE, Laza RC, Visperas RM, Zhong X, Centeno GS, Khush GS, Cassman KG (2004) Rice yields decline with higher night temperature from global warming. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 101(27):9971–9975Google Scholar
  76. Peterson C, Folland C, Gruza G, Hogg W, Mokssit A, Plummer N (2001) (Tech. Doc. 1071). Report on the activities of the working group on climate change detection and related rapporteurs 1998–2001. World Meteorological Organization, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  77. Przekota G., Szczepanska- Przekota, A., 2010. The reaction of the WIG stock market index to changes in the interest rates on bank deposits. Operations research and decision. No.1. 97–110Google Scholar
  78. Qu B, Aifeng L, Jia S, Zhu W (2016) Daily precipitation changes over large river basins in China, 1960–2013. Water 8:185. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Rahimzadeh F, Asgari A, Fattahi E (2009) Variability of extreme temperature and precipitation in Iran during recent decades. Int J Climatol 29:329–343CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Robert C, Balling JR, KriKhosravi Kiani MR, Shouraseni Sen R (2016) Anthropogenic signals in Iranian extreme temperature indices. Atmos Res 169:96–101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Scripcă A-S, Strapazan C, Holobâcă I-H (2016) Regional aspects of the variability of atmospheric precipitation in winter and summer seasons in Europe during 2001-2090. Air and water: Components of the Environment. Conference Proceedings 143–151.
  82. Shaowei N, Jie W, Juliang J, Hiroshi I (2016) Assessment of the latest GPM-era high-resolution satellite precipitation products by comparison with observation gauge data over the Chinese mainland. Water 8:481. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Siegmann B, Jarmer T, Beyer F, Ehlers M (2015) The potential of pan-sharpened EnMAP data for the assessment of wheat LAI. Remote Sens 7:12737–12762. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Singh D, Kumar SJ, Dev Gupta R, Kumar S (2016) Analyses of observed and anticipated changes in extreme climate events in the northwest Himalaya. Climate 4:9. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Sodoudi S, Shahmohamadi P, Vollack K, Cubasch U, Che-Ani AI (2014) Mitigating the urban heat island effect in megacity Tehran. Adv Meteorol 2014:547974. 19 pages
  86. Sohrabi MM, Ryu JH, Abatzoglou J, Tracy J (2013a) Climate extreme and its linkage to regional drought over Idaho, USA. J Nat Hazards 6(1):653–681CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Sohrabi MM, Ryu JH, Alijani B (2013b) Spatial and temporal analysis of climatic extremes over the mountainous regions of Iran. Int Clim Chang 4(4):19–36Google Scholar
  88. Soltani M, Laux P, Kunstmann H, Stan K, Sohrabi MM, Molanejad M, Zawar-Reza P (2016) Assessment of climate variations in temperature and precipitation extreme events over Iran. Theor Appl Climatol 126(3):775–795. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Sunyer MA, Hundecha Y, Lawrence D, Madsen H, Willems P, Martinkova M, Loukas A (2019) Inter-comparison of statistical downscaling methods for projection of extreme precipitation in EuropeGoogle Scholar
  90. Sussman H (2012) Impasses of the post-global: Theory in the Era of climate change MPublishing, University of Michigan Library 2:284Google Scholar
  91. Tang J, Niu X, Wang S, Gao H, Wang X, Wu J (2016) Statistical downscaling and dynamical downscaling of regional climate in China: present climate evaluations and future climate projections. J Geophys Res Atmos 121(5):2110–2129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Tao Y, Xiaobo H, Quanxi S, Chong-Yu X, Chenyi Z, Xi C, Weiguang W (2012) Multi-model ensemble projections in temperature and precipitation extremes of the Tibetan Plateau in the 21st century. Glob Planet Chang 80–81(1–13)Google Scholar
  93. Tuomenvirta H (2000) Homogeneity testing and analysis of climatological time series from Finland and the Nordic region. Licentiate thesis, University of Helsinki, Department of MeteorologyGoogle Scholar
  94. Van Leeuwen WJD, Davison JE, Casady GM, Marsh SE (2010) Phenological characterization of desert sky island vegetation communities with remotely sensed and climate time series data. Remote Sens 2010(2):388–415.
  95. Wang S, Jiao S, Xin H (2013) Spatio-temporal characteristics of temperature and precipitation in Sichuan Province, Southwestern China, 1960e2009. Quatern. Int. 286:103–115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Wenyi S, Xingmin M, Xiaoyan S, Dan W, Aifang C, Bing Q (2016) Changes in extreme temperature and precipitation events in the Loess Plateau (China) during 1960–2013 under global warming. Atmos Res 168:33–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. WMO (2004) Report of the CCl/CLIVAR Expert Team on Climate Change Detection Monitoring and Indices (ETCCDMI). 24–26 November 2003, Zuckerman Institute / Climatic Research Unit, East Anglia University, Norwich, UK. No. 1205Google Scholar
  98. Xiong Y, Huang S, Chen F, Ye H, Wang C, Zhu C (2012) The impacts of rapid urbanization on the thermal environment: a remote sensing study of Guangzhou, South China. Remote Sens 4:2033–2056. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Yinghui G, Xunchang Z, Fenli Z, Bin W (2015) Trends and variability of daily temperature extremes during 1960–2012 in the Yangtze River basin, China. Glob Planet Chang 124:79–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. You X, Meng J, Zhang M, Dong T (2013) Remote sensing based detection of crop phenology for agricultural zones in China using a new threshold method. Remote Sens 5:3190–3211. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Yusa A, Berry P, Cheng JJ, Ogden N, Bonsal B, Stewart R, Waldick R (2015) Climate change, drought and human health in Canada. Int J Environ Res Public Health 12:8359–8412. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Zhen Y, Xilin L (2015) Recent trends in daily temperature extremes over northeastern China (1960–2011). Quatern. Int 380–381:35–48Google Scholar
  103. Zhou J, Li M, Liu S, Jia Z, Ma Y, (2015) Validation and performance evaluations of methods for estimating land surface temperatures from ASTER data in the middle reach of the Heihe river basin, Northwest China. Remote Sens 7(6):7126–7156Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Austria, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Geography and Environmental SciencesHakim Sabzevari UniversitySabzevarIran
  2. 2.Faculty of Geography and Environmental SciencesHakim Sabzevari UniversitySabzevarIran
  3. 3.Faculty of Earth SciencesShahid Beheshti UniversityTehranIran

Personalised recommendations