Advertisement

Theoretical analysis of potential applications of microwave radar for sandstorm detection

  • Wang Juan
  • Xingcai LiEmail author
  • Minzhong WangEmail author
  • Wenhai Sun
Original Paper

Abstract

Based on the Rayleigh scattering theory and the meteorological radar equation, in this research, effective detection range has been proposed theoretically to evaluate the working of microwave radar during electrified dust storms. In this regard, the effects of particles concentration and charge quantity of the dust on the performance of microwave radar were analyzed. The results show that particle charges play an integral role in significantly enhancing the radar echoes which signal dust storms, thus making it possible to use microwave radar for dust storm detection. In addition, numerical simulation results have also illustrated that 35 GHz radar is more suitable for remote detection of the vertical structure of a dust layer. In the end, an inversion analysis method used for building the particle concentration profile through radar has been discussed. This study shall prove to be useful in the development of a new monitoring method in the research of sand storms.

Notes

Funding information

We acknowledge support from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (nos. 11562017, 41775030, 11302111), the CAS “Light of West China” Program (no. XAB2017AW03), and the Key Research and Development Program of Ningxia Province (no. 2018BFH03004).

References

  1. Akhlaq MR, Sheltami T, Mouftah HT (2012) A review of techniques and technologies for sand and dust storm detection. Rev Environ Sci Niotechnol 11:305–322CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alhaider MA and Ali AA (1989) Experimental studies on millimeterwave and infrared propagation in arid land: the effect of sand storms, 268–270Google Scholar
  3. Ali AA, Alhaider MA (1992) Millimeter wave propagation in arid land a field study in Riyadh. IEEE Trans Antennas Propag 40:492–499CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bashir SO, Dissanayake AW, McEwan NJ (1980) Prediction of forward scattering and cross-polarization due to dry and moist haboob and sandstorms in Sudan in the 9.4GHz band. Telecommun J 47:462–467Google Scholar
  5. Chiou M-M, Kiang J-F (2017) PWE-based radar equation to predict backscattering of millimeter-wave in a sandstorm. IEEE Trans Antennas Propag 65:785–793CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Ghobrial SI, Hemeidi MA, Tawfig ME (1987) Observation on 2 and 7.5GHz microwave links during dust storms. Electron Lett 23:44–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Gu Z, Wei W, Su J, Yu CW (2013) The role of water content in triboelectric charging of wind-blown sand. Sci Rep 3:1337CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Haddad S, Salman MJH, and Jha RK (1983) Effects of dust/sand storms on some aspects of microwave propagation, In: Proc. Ursi commission F symposium. Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium: ESA publication SP-194, 1983. 153–161Google Scholar
  9. Hashizume M, Ueda K, Nishiwaki Y, Michikawa T, Onozuka D (2010) Health effects of Asian dust events: a review of the literature. Nippon Eiseigaku Zasshi 65:413–421CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Hu W, Xie L, Zheng X (2012) Simulation of the electrification of wind-blown sand. Eur Phys J E Soft Matter 35:1–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Islam MR, Elabdin Z, Elshaikh O, Khalifa OO, Alam AZ, Khan S, Naji AW (2010) Prediction of signal attenuation due to duststorms using Mie scattering. IIUM Eng J 11:71–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Li X (2011) Investigations on the EM scattering of partially charged sand particle and its application, Doctor, Department of Mechnics and Engineering Science, Lanzhou University, LanzhouGoogle Scholar
  13. Li QDY-L, Xu J, Wang M (2014) Backscattering characteristics of millimeter wave radar in sand and dust storms. J Electromagn Waves Appl 28:1075–1084CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Mahowald N, Ward DS, Kloster S, Flanner MG, Heald CL, Heavens NG, Hess PG (2011) Aerosols impacts on climate and biogeochemistry. Annu Rev Environ Resour 36:45–74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Qingsheng D (1997) Physical characteristics of the sand and dust in different deserts of China. Chin J Radio Sci 12:15–25Google Scholar
  16. Qingsheng D, Zhenwei Z, Hongjun C (1996) The mm-wave attenuation due to sand and dust. Chin J Radio Sci 11:29–32.Google Scholar
  17. Qunfeng D, Yingle L, Jiadong X, Hui Z, Mingjun W (2014) Backscattering characteristics of millimeter wave radar in sand and dust storms. J Electromagnet Wave 28:1075–1084CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Schmidt DS, Schmidt RS (1998) Electrostatic force on saltating sand. J Geophys Res 103:8997–9001CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Wang M, Wei W, and He Q (2011) Boundary layer wind profiler radar data used in the analysis of dust weather, Journal of desert research (in Chinese), 31Google Scholar
  20. Wang M, W W, Z R, Q H, R G (2013) Application of wind-profiling radar data to the analysis of dust weather in the Taklimakan Desert. Environ Monit Assess 185:4819–4834CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Xie L, Li X, Zheng X (2010) Attenuation of an electromagnetic wave by charged dust particles in a sandstorm. Appl Opt 49:6756–6761CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Xingcai L, Xing M, Dandan L (2014) Rayleigh approximation for the scattering of small partially charged sand particles. J Opt Soc Am A Opt Image Sci Vis 31:1495–1501CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Zheng XJ (2009) Mechanics of wind-blown sand movements. SpringerGoogle Scholar
  24. Zheng XJ (2013) Electrification of wind-blown sand: recent advances and key issues. Eur Phys J E 36:138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Zheng XJ, Huang N, Zhou YH (2003a) Laboratory measurement of electrification of wind-blown sands and simulation of its effect on and saltation movement. J Geophys Res 108:D104322Google Scholar
  26. Zheng XJ, Huang N, Zhou YH (2003b) Laboratory measurement of electrification of wind-blown sands and simulation of its effect on sand saltation movement. J Geophys Res-space Phys 108:4322CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Zheng X, Li X, Xie L (2011) Cross depolarization effect of electromagnetic wave by partially charged Spherical Sands in sandstorms. J Desert Research 31:567–570Google Scholar
  28. Zheng X, Zhang R, Huang H (2014) Theoretical modeling of relative humidity on contact electrification of sand particles. Sci Rep 4:4399CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Zhou YH, He QS, Zheng XJ (2005) Attenuation of electromagnetic wave propagation in sandstorms incorporating charged sand particles. Eur Phys J E 17:181–187CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Austria, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Xinhua College of Ningxia UniversityYinchuanChina
  2. 2.Ningxia Key Laboratory of Intelligent Sensing for the Desert InformationNingxia UniversityYinchuanChina
  3. 3.School of Physics & Electrical Information EngineeringNingxia UniversityYinchuanChina
  4. 4.China Meteorological AdministrationUrumqi Institute of Desert MeteorologyUrumqiChina

Personalised recommendations