Advertisement

Theoretical and Applied Climatology

, Volume 136, Issue 3–4, pp 1407–1417 | Cite as

Regime shift of global oceanic evaporation in the late 1990s using OAFlux dataset

  • Ning Cao
  • Baohua RenEmail author
Original Paper

Abstract

After the decadal change being marked by a distinct transition from a downward trend to an upward trend around 1977–1978, the global oceanic evaporation is found to present a regime shift to downward trend from 2000 onwards by using the Objectively Analyzed air-sea Fluxes (OAFlux) dataset. The robustness of post-2000 decreasing trend of global oceanic evaporation featured by OAFlux is fairly confirmed by checking the total precipitation trend from the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) and the CPC Merged Analysis of Precipitation (CMAP) datasets via budget constraint. Analysis on the 1999/2000 trend reversal in global mean temporal evolution and local linear trend patterns of evaporation and related variables is performed. Results show that the positive trend of evaporation before 2000 is primarily associated with both the SST warming and the strengthening of near-surface wind, while the negative trend of evaporation after 2000 may be highly correlated with the weakening of near-surface wind speed and reduction in sea-air humidity difference. The post-2000 decreasing of oceanic evaporation mainly effects precipitation trend over oceans via budget constraint, while land precipitation shows no significant decreasing trend, which may be explained by the increasing of evapotranspiration over land.

Keywords

Oceanic evaporation Regime shift OAFlux 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We acknowledge the helpful suggestions from the anonymous reviewers. Authors acknowledge the use of OAFlux products, GPCP and CMAP products. Information on the WHOI OAFlux project and related products can be found at http://oaflux.whoi.edu/. The GPCP and CMAP data is provided by the NOAA/OAR/ESRL PSD, Boulder, Colorado, USA, from their Web site at http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/psd/.

Funding information

This work was supported by the Basic planning project of Minisitry of Science and Technology (No.2016YFC1401403), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Project No. 41675066), and the program for scientific research start-up funds of Guangdong Ocean University (No. R17056).

References

  1. Adler RF, et al (2003) The version-2 global precipitation climatology project (GPCP) monthly precipitation analysis (1979-present). J Hydrometeorol 4:1147–1167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Allan RP, Soden BJ, John VO, Ingram W, Good P (2010) Current changes in tropical precipitation. Environ Res Lett 5:025205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Alexander MA, Scott JD (1997) Surface flux variability over the North Pacific and North Atlantic Oceans. J. Climate 10:2963–2978CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Baumgartner A, Reichel E (1975) The World Water Balance. Elsevier, New York, p 179Google Scholar
  5. Blunden J, Arndt DS (2013) State of the climate in 2012. Bull Amer Meteor Soc 94:S1–S258CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Boykoff MT (2014) Media discourse on the climate slowdown. Nat Clim Change 4:156–158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cao N, Ren BH, Zheng JQ (2015) Evaluation of CMIP5 climate models in simulating 1979–2005 oceanic latent heat flux over the Pacific,. Adv Atmos Sci 32(12):1603–1616CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Durack PJ, Wijffels SE, Matear RJ (2012) Ocean salinities reveal strong global water cycle intensification during 1950 to 2000. Science 336:455–458CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Easterling DR, Wehner MF (2009) Is the climate warming or cooling? Geophys Res Lett 36:L08706CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. England MH, et al (2014) Recent intensification of wind-driven circulation in the Pacific and the ongoing warming hiatus. Nat Clim Change 4(3):222–227CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Foster G, Rahmstorf S (2011) Global temperature evolution 1979–2010. Environ Res Lett 6(4):044022CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Gimeno L, et al (2012) Oceanic and terrestrial sources of continental precipitation. Rev Geophys 50:RG4003CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Greve P, Orlowsky B, Mueller B, Sheffield J, Reichstein M, Seneviratne SI (2014) Global assessment of trends in wetting and drying over land. Nat Geosci 7(10):716–721CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Held IM, Soden BJ (2006) Robust responses of the hydrological cycle to global warming. J Climate 19(21):5686–5699CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Huang P, Xie SP, Hu K, Huang G, Huang RH (2013) Patterns of the seasonal response of tropical rainfall to global warming. Nat Geosci 6(5):357–361CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Iwasaki S, Kubota M (2011) Increasing trends for the surface heat flux and fresh water flux in the North Pacific eastern subtropical region. Geophys Res Lett 38:L10604CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Karl TR, et al (2015) Possible artifacts of data biases in the recent global surface warming hiatus. Science 348(6242):1469–1472CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Kiehl JT, Trenberth KE (1997) Earth’s annual global mean energy budget. Bull Amer Meteor Soc 78(2):197–208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Kosaka Y, Xie SP (2013) Recent global-warming hiatus tied to equatorial Pacific surface cooling. Nature 501:403–407CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Kutzbach JE (1970) Large-scale features of monthly mean Northern Hemisphere anomaly maps of sea-level pressure. Mon Wea Rev 98:708–716CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Lewandowsky S, Risbey JS, Oreskes N (2015) On the definition and identifiability of the alleged “hiatus”in global warming. Sci. Rep. 5:16784CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Li G, Ren BH, Zheng JQ, Yang CY (2011) Trend singular value decomposition analysis and its application to the global ocean surface latent heat flux and SST anomalies. J Climate 24:2931–2948CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Li G, Ren BH, Yang CY, Zheng JQ (2011) Revisiting the trend of the tropical and subtropical Pacific surface latent heat flux during 1977–2006. J Geophys Res 116:D10115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Li G, Xie SP (2012) Origins of tropical-wide SST biases in CMIP multi-model ensembles. Geophys Res Lett 39:L22703Google Scholar
  25. Li G, Xie SP (2014) Tropical biases in CMIP5 multimodel ensemble: The excessive equatorial Pacific cold tongue and double ITCZ problems. J Climate 27:1765–1780CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Li G, Du Y, Xu H, Ren BH (2015) An intermodel approach to identify the source of excessive equatorial Pacific cold tongue in CMIP5 models and uncertainty in observational datasets. J. Climate 28:7630–7640CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Li G, Xie SP, Du Y (2015) Monsoon-induced biases of climate models over the tropical Indian Ocean. J Climate 28:3058–3072CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Liu JP, Curry JA (2006) Variability of the tropical and subtropical ocean surface latent heat flux during 1989-2000. Geophys Res Lett 33:L05706Google Scholar
  29. Liu WT, Katsaros KB, Businger JA (1979) Bulk Parameterizations of air–sea exchanges of heat and water vapor including molecular constraints at the interface. J Atmos Sci 36:1722–1735CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Mantua NJ, Hare SR, Zhang Y, Wallace JM, Francis RC (1997) A Pacific decadal climate oscillation with impacts on salmon. Bull Amer Meteor Soc 78:1069–1079CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Meehl GA, Hu AX, Arblaster AX, Fasullo JT, Trenberth KE (2013) Externally forced and internally generated decadal climate variability associated with the Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation. J Climate 26:7298–7310CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Nieves V, Willis JK, Patzert WC (2015) Recent hiatus caused by decadal shift in Indo-Pacific heating. Science, aaa4521Google Scholar
  33. Otto A, et al (2013) Energy budget constraints on climate response. Nat Geosci 6:415–416CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Pan YF, Ren BH (2018) The Contrasting Hydrological Cycle over the Land and Sea since 2003. Clim Dynam, revisedGoogle Scholar
  35. Prytherch J, Kent EC, Fangohr S, Berry DI (2015) A comparison of SSM/i-derived global marine surface-specific humidity datasets. Int J Climatol 35(9):2359–2381CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Rinke A, Melsheimer C, Dethloff K, Heygster G (2009) Arctic total water vapor: Comparison of regional climate simulations with observations, and simulated decadal trends. J Hydrometeorol 10:113–129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Roderick ML, Farquhar GD (2002) The cause of decreased pan evaporation over the past 50 years. Science 298:1410–1411Google Scholar
  38. Roderick ML, Rotstayn LD, Farquhar GD, Hobbins MT (2007) On the attribution of changing pan evaporation. Geophys Res Lett 34(17)Google Scholar
  39. Santer BD, et al (2000) Statistical significance of trends and trend differences in layer-average atmospheric temperature time series. J Geophys Res 105(D6):7337–7356CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Taylor KE (2001) Summarizing multiple aspects of model performance in a single diagram. J Geophys Res 106(D7):7183–7192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Trenberth KE (1990) Recent observed interdecadal climate changes in the Northern Hemisphere. Bull Amer Meteor Soc 71:988–993CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Trenberth KE, Smith L, Qian T, Dai A, Fasullo J (2007) Estimates of the global water budget and its annual cycle using observational and model data. J Hydrometeorol 8(4):758–769CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Trenberth KE, Fasullo JT, Kiehl JT (2009) Earth’s global energy budget. Bull Amer Meteor Soc 90(3):311–323CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Xie P, Arkin PA (1997) Global precipitation: a 17-year monthly analysis based on gauge observations, satellite estimations, and numerical model outputs. Bull Amer Meteor Soc 78:2539–2558CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Yu LS (2007) Global variations in oceanic evaporation (1958–2005): The role of the changing wind speed. J Climate 20:5376–5390CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Yu LS, Weller RA, Sun BM (2004) Mean and variability of the WHOI daily latent and sensible heat fluxes at in situ flux measurement sites in the Atlantic Ocean. J Climate 17:2096–2118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Yu LS, Jin XZ, Weller RA (2008) Multidecade global flux datasets from the objectively analyzed air-sea fluxes (OAFlux) project: Latent and sensible heat fluxes, ocean evaporation, and related surface meteorological variables, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, OAFlux Project Technical Report OA-2008-01 64 ppGoogle Scholar
  48. Yu LS, Jin X, Stackhouse PW, Wilber AC, Josey SA, Xue Y, Kumar A (2015) Ocean surface heat and momentum fluxes, In ”State of the Climate in 2014”. Bull Amer Meteor Soc 96(7):S68–S71Google Scholar
  49. Yu LS, Weller RA (2007) Objectively analyzed air–sea heat fluxes for the global ice-free oceans (1981-2005), . Bull Amer Meteor Soc 88:527–539CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Yu JY, Kim ST (2011) Relationships between Extratropical Sea Level Pressure Variations and the Central-Pacific and Eastern-Pacific Types of ENSO. J Climate 24:708–720CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Zhang Y, Wallace JM, Battisti DS (1997) ENSO-Like interdecadal variability: 1900–93. J Climate 10:1004–1020CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Austria, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.College of Ocean and MeteorologyGuangdong Ocean UniversityZhanjiangChina
  2. 2.School of Earth and Space SciencesUniversity of Science and Technology of ChinaHefeiChina

Personalised recommendations