Theoretical and Applied Climatology

, Volume 136, Issue 1–2, pp 157–168 | Cite as

Characterization of land surface energy fluxes in a tropical lowland rice paddy

  • Dibyendu Chatterjee
  • Rahul Tripathi
  • Sumanta Chatterjee
  • Manish Debnath
  • Mohammad Shahid
  • Pratap Bhattacharyya
  • Chinmaya Kumar Swain
  • Rojalin Tripathy
  • Bimal K. Bhattacharya
  • Amaresh Kumar NayakEmail author
Original Paper


A field experiment was conducted in 2015 to study the land surface energy fluxes from tropical lowland rice paddy in eastern India with an objective to determine the mass, momentum, and energy exchange rates between rice paddies and the atmosphere. All the land surface energy fluxes were measured by eddy covariance (EC) system (make Campbell Scientific) in dry season (DS, 1–125 Julian days), dry fallow (DF, 126–181 Julian days), wet season (WS, 182–324 Julian days), and wet fallow (WF, 325–365 Julian days). The rice was cultivated in dry season (January–May) and wet season (July–November) in low wet lands and the ground is kept fallow during the remainder of the year. Results showed that albedo varied from 0.09 to 0.24 and showed positive value from morning 6:00 h until evening 18:00 h. Mean soil temperature (Tg) was highest in DF, while the skin temperature (Ts) was highest in WS. Average Bowen ratio (B) ranged from 0.21 to 0.64 and large variation in B was observed during the fallow periods as compared to the cropping seasons. The magnitude of aerodynamic, canopy, and climatological resistances increased with the progress of cropping season and their magnitudes decreased during the end of both cropping seasons and found minimum during the fallow periods. At a constant vapor pressure deficit (VPD) at 0.16, 0.18, 0.15, and 0.43 kPa, latent heat flux (LE) initially increased, but later it tended to level off with an increase in VPD. The actual evapotranspiration (ETa) during both the cropping seasons was higher than the fallow period. This study can be used as a source of default values for many land surface energy fluxes which are required in various meteorological or air-quality models for rice paddies. A larger imbalance of energy was observed during the wet season as the energy is stored and perhaps advected in the fresh water.


Albedo Bowen ratio Eddy covariance Evapotranspiration Skin temperature 



The work was partially supported by the grant of ICAR-NICRA and ISRO-SAC project. The authors are thankful to LI-COR Inc., Campbell Scientific Corp. (Canada), and MeaTech Solutions LLP for their technical assistance and support during the study. There is no conflict of interest to declare.


  1. Abu-Hamdeh NH (2003) Thermal properties of soils as affected by density and water content. Biosyst Eng 86:97–102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aires F, Prigent C, Rossow WB (2004) Temporal interpolation of global surface skin temperature diurnal cycle over land under clear and cloudy conditions. J Geophys Res Atmos 109(D4).
  3. Alberto MCR, Wassmann R, Hirano T, Miyata A, Hatano R, Kumar A, Padre A, Amante M (2011) Comparisons of energy balance and evapotranspiration between flooded and aerobic rice fields in the Philippines. Agric Water Manag 98:1417–1430. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Arya PS (2001) Introduction to micrometeorology, 2nd edn. Academic. A Harcourt science and technology company, London, pp 11–13. Google Scholar
  5. Banerjee S, Dutta P (2015) Albedo pattern over rice field in lower Gangetic plains of West Bengal during kharif and boro seasons. Indian J Appl Res 5:553–554Google Scholar
  6. Breuer L, Eckhardt K, Frede HG (2003) Plant parameter values for models in temperate climates. Ecol Model 169:237–293CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Burns SP, Horst TW, Jacobsen L, Blanken PD, Monson RK (2012) Using sonic anemometer temperature to measure sensible heat flux in strong winds. Atmos Meas Tech 5:2095–2111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Chacko PT, Renuka G (2002) Temperature mapping, thermal diffusivity and subsoil heat flux at Kariavattom of Kerala. Proc Indian Acad Sci (Earth Planet Sci) 111:79–85Google Scholar
  9. Chávez JL, Howell TA, Copeland KS (2009) Evaluating eddy covariance cotton ET measurements in an advective environment with large weighing lysimeters. Irrig Sci 28:35–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Dickinson RE (1983) Land surface processes and climate surface albedos and energy-balance. Adv Geophys 25:305–353CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Ding Y, Liu YX, Wu WX, Shi DZ, Yang M, Zhong ZK (2010) Evaluation of biochar effects on nitrogen retention and leaching in multi-layered soil columns. Water Air Soil Pollut 213:47–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Duffkova R (2006) Difference in canopy and air temperature as an indicator of grassland water stress. Soil Water Res 1:127–138Google Scholar
  13. Evett SR, Schwartz RC, Casanova JJ, Heng LK (2012) Soil water sensing for water balance, ET and WUE. Agric Water Manag 104:1–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Falge E, Baldocchi D, Olson R, Anthoni P, Aubinet M, Bernhofer C, Burba G, Ceulemans R, Clement R, Dolman H, Granier A, Gross P, Grunwald T, Hollinger D, Jensen NO, Katul G, Keronen P, Kowalski A, Lai CT, Law BE, Meyers T, Moncrieff J, Moors E, Munger JW, Pilegaard K, Rannik U, Reb-mann C, Suyker A, Tenhunen J, Tu K, Verma S, Vesala T, Wilson K, Wofsy S (2001) Gap filling strategies for defensible annual sums of net ecosystem exchange. Agric For Meteorol 107:43–69. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Fuchs M, Tanner CB (1970) Error analysis of Bowen ratios measured by differential psychrometry. Agric Meteorol 7:329–334CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Gao Z, Bian L, Zhou X (2003) Measurements of turbulent transfer in the near-surface layer over a rice paddy in China. J Geophys Res 108(D13):4387. Google Scholar
  17. Gascoin S, Ducharne A, Ribstein P, Perroy E, Wagnon P (2009) Sensitivity of bare soil albedo to surface soil moisture on the moraine of the Zongo glacier (Bolivia). Geophys Res Lett 36:L02405CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Ghuman BS, Lal R (1985) Thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, and thermal capacity of some nigerian soils. Soil Sci 139:74–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Goosse H, Barriat PY, Lefebvre W Loutre MF, Zunz V (2008-2010) Introduction to climate dynamics and climate modeling. Online textbook available at
  20. Goulden ML, Munger JW, Fan SM, Daube BC, Wofsy SC (1996) Measurements of carbon sequestration by long-term eddy covariance: methods and a critical evaluation of accuracy. Glob Chang Biol 3:169–182. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Grant IF, Prata AJ, Cechet RP (2000) The impact of the diurnal variation of albedo on the remote sensing of the daily mean albedo of grassland. J Appl Meteorol 39:231–244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Grell GA (1995) A description of the fifth-generation Penn State/NCAR mesoscale model (MM5), NCAR/TN-398+ STR. NCAR Technical NoteGoogle Scholar
  23. Gu L, Meyers T, Pallardy SG, Hanson PJ, Yang B, Heuer M, Hosman KP, Riggs JS, Sluss D, Wullschleger SD (2006) Direct and indirect effects of atmospheric conditions and soil moisture on surface energy partitioning revealed by a prolonged drought at a temperate forest site. J Geophys Res Atmos 386:111(D16)Google Scholar
  24. Harazono Y, Kim J, Miyata A, Choi T, Yun JI, Kim JW (1998) Measurement of energy budget components during the International Rice Experiment (IREX) in Japan. Hydrol Process 12:2081–2092CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Hatfield JL, Perrier A, Jackson RD (1983) Estimation of evapotranspiration at one-time-of-day using remotely sensed surface temperature. Agric Water Manag 7:341–350CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Hatton TJ, Vertessy RA (1990) Transpiration of plantation Pinus radiata estimated by the heat pulse method and the Bowen ratio. Hydrol Process 4:289–298CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Hidayati N, Anas I (2016) Photosynthesis and transpiration rates of rice cultivated under the system of rice intensification and the effects on growth and yield. HAYATI J Biosci 23:67–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Hillel D (1998) Environmental soil physics: fundamentals, applications, and environmental considerations. Academic, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  29. Hollinger DY, Richardson AD (2005) Uncertainty in eddy covariance measurements and its application to physiological models. Tree Physiol 25:873–885CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Junzeng XU, Qi WE, Shizhang PE, Yanmei YU (2012) Error of saturation vapor pressure calculated by different formulas and its effect on calculation of reference evapotranspiration in high latitude cold region. Procedia Eng 28:43–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Kaimal JC, Finnigan JJ (1994) Atmospheric boundary layer flows. Oxford University Press, p 289.
  32. Leuning R, Kelliher FM, Pury DD, Schulze ED (1995) Leaf nitrogen, photosynthesis, conductance and transpiration: scaling from leaves to canopies. Plant Cell Environ 18:1183–1200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Liu S, Lu L, Mao D, Jia L (2007) Evaluating parameterizations of aerodynamic resistance to heat transfer using field measurements. Hydrol Earth Syst Sci 11:769–783CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Liu X, Yang S, Xu J, Zhang J, Liu J (2017) Effects of soil heat storage and phase shift correction on energy balance closure of paddy fields. Atmosfera 30:39–52. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Mauder M, Foken T (2011) Documentation and instruction manual of the eddy covariance software package TK2, Universitaet Bayreuth, Abt. Mikrometeorologie, print, ISSN 1614-891620Arbeitsergebnisse 26, p 44Google Scholar
  36. Mauder M, Liebethal C, Göckede M, Leps JP, Beyrich F, Foken T (2006) Processing and quality control of flux data during LITFASS-2003. Bound-Layer Meteorol 121:67–88. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. McElrone AJ, Brodersen CR, Alsina MM, Drayton WM, Matthews MA, Shackel KA, Wada H, Zufferey V, Choat B (2012) Centrifuge technique consistently overestimates vulnerability to water stress induced cavitation in grapevines as confirmed with high resolution computed tomography. New Phytol 196:661–665CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Monteith JL (1965) Evaporation and environment. Symp Soc Exp Biol 19(205–23):4Google Scholar
  39. Monteith JL, Unsworth MH (1990) Principles of environmental physics, 2nd edn. Arnold, LondonGoogle Scholar
  40. Oguntunde PG, Olukunle OJ, Ijatuyi OA, Olufayo AA (2007) A semi-empirical model for estimating surface albedo of wetland rice field. Agric Eng Int CIGR J. Manuscript LW 06 019 IX:10Google Scholar
  41. Papale D, Reichstein M, Aubinet M, Canfora E, Bernhofer C, Kutsch W, Longdoz B, Rambal S, Valentini R, Vesala T, Yakir D (2006) Towards a standardized processing of Net Ecosystem Exchange measured with eddy covariance technique: algorithms and uncertainty estimation. Biogeosciences 3(4):571–583CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Prigent C, Aires F, Rossow WB (2003) Land surface skin temperatures from a combined analysis of microwave and infrared satellite observations for an all-weather evaluation of the differences between air and skin temperatures. J Geophys Res 108:4310. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Qu M, Wan J, Hao X (2014) Analysis of diurnal air temperature range change in the continental United States. Weather Clim Extrem 4:86–95CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Rana G, Katerji N (1996) Evapotranspiration measurement for tall plant canopies: the sweet sorghum case. Theor Appl Climatol 54(3):187–200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Reichstein M, Falge E, Baldocchi D, Papale D, Aubinet M, Berbigier P, Bernhofer C, Buchmann N, Gilmanov T, Granier A, Grünwald T (2005) On the separation of net ecosystem exchange into assimilation and ecosystem respiration: review and improved algorithm. Glob Chang Biol 11:1424–1439. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Seidel DJ, Free M, Wang J (2005) Diurnal cycle of upper air temperature estimated from radiosondes. J Geophys Res-Atmos 110:D09102. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Sherwood SC (2000) Climate signal mapping and an application to atmospheric tides. Geophys Res Lett 27:3525–3528CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Sinclair TC, de Wit CT (1975) Photosynthate and nitrogen requirements for speed production by various crops. Science 189:565–567CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Sun D, Pinker RT, Kafatos M (2006) Diurnal temperature range over the United States: a satellite view. Geophys Res Lett 33(5).
  50. Timm AU, Roberti DR, Streck NA, Gustavo G. de Gonçalves L, Acevedo OC, Moraes OL, Moreira VS, Degrazia GA, Ferlan M, Toll DL (2014) Energy partitioning and evapotranspiration over a rice paddy in Southern Brazil. J Hydrometeorol 15(5):1975–1988Google Scholar
  51. Tsai JL, Tsuang BJ, Lu PS, Yao MH, Shen Y (2007) Surface energy components and land characteristics of a rice paddy. J Appl Meteorol 46:1879–1900. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Tsuang BJ (2003) Analytical asymptotic solutions to determine interactions between the planetary boundary layer and the earth’s surface. J Geophys Res 108:8608. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Tsuang BJ (2005) Ground heat flux determination according to land skin temperature observations from in situ stations and satellites. J Hydrometeorol 6:371–390CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Vickers D, Mahrt L (1997) Quality control and flux sampling problems for tower and aircraft data. J Atmos Ocean Technol 14:512–526.<0512:QCAFSP>2.0.CO;2
  55. Webb EK, Pearman GI, Leuning R (1980) Correction of flux measurements for density effects due to heat and water vapour transfer. Q J R Meteorol Soc 106:85–100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Wielicki BA, Barkstrom BR, Harrison EF, Lee RB III, Smith GL, Cooper JE (1996) Clouds and the Earth’s radiant energy system (CERES): an earth observing system experiment. Bull Am Meteorol Soc 77:853–868.<0853:CATERE>2.0.CO;2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Wohlfahrt G, Widmoser P (2013) Can an energy balance model provide additional constraints on how to close the energy imbalance? Agric For Meteorol 169:85–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Yoshimoto M, Oue H, Kobayashi K (2005) Energy balance and water use efficiency of rice canopies under free-air CO enrichment. Agric For Meteorol 133:226–246Google Scholar
  59. Zheng Z, Wei Z, Li Z, Wei H, Liu H (2014) Study of parameterization of surface albedo of bare soil over the Gobi Desert in the Dunhuang region. Chin J Atmos Sci 38:297–308Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Austria, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dibyendu Chatterjee
    • 1
  • Rahul Tripathi
    • 1
  • Sumanta Chatterjee
    • 1
  • Manish Debnath
    • 1
  • Mohammad Shahid
    • 1
  • Pratap Bhattacharyya
    • 1
  • Chinmaya Kumar Swain
    • 1
  • Rojalin Tripathy
    • 2
  • Bimal K. Bhattacharya
    • 2
  • Amaresh Kumar Nayak
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Division of Crop ProductionNational Rice Research InstituteCuttackIndia
  2. 2.Space Applications CentreIndian Space Research OrganizationAhmedabadIndia

Personalised recommendations