Theoretical and Applied Climatology

, Volume 134, Issue 3–4, pp 1047–1063 | Cite as

The impact of climate change on air conditioning requirements in Andalusia at a detailed scale

  • Natalia Limones-Rodríguez
  • Javier Marzo-Artigas
  • María Fernanda Pita-López
  • María Pilar Díaz-Cuevas
Original Paper


This work calculates the current heating and cooling degree days and also examines heating and cooling degree days in relation to three subdivisions of the twenty-first century. On the basis of these data, we were able to calculate the heating and cooling degree months and degree years. After examining both sets of data, we studied the total needs of air conditioning—also referred to in the current paper as climatization needs——for Andalusia as a whole. The results indicate an increase in air conditioning needs, and we also noted that the areas adversely affected by this increase were more numerous than those which benefited, at the end of the century. It should be noted that climate change will also necessitate the gradual replacement of heating with cooling, which will require profound changes in the energy, land planning, and housing policies of the region. The true magnitude of the challenge becomes clear when the climatization degree days are related to the population which they affect; the majority of the population is located in areas where the climatization needs will increase over the course of the century. Undoubtedly, this issue is a major protagonist in the climate change adaptation process in Andalusia.



We are grateful to AEMET and to the Environment Agency of the Government of Andalusia for providing us with the observation climate data and the future projection climate data, respectively.


This research was funded by the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness and FEDER (Project CSO2015-64026-P, EVALSOC) and by the European Union (Developing Skills in the Field of Integrated Energy Planning in Med Landscapes Project, ENEPLAN).


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Austria, part of Springer Nature 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Natalia Limones-Rodríguez
    • 1
  • Javier Marzo-Artigas
    • 2
  • María Fernanda Pita-López
    • 2
  • María Pilar Díaz-Cuevas
    • 2
  1. 1.World BankWashingtonUSA
  2. 2.Department of Physical GeographyUniversity of SevilleSevilleSpain

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