Trends in extreme temperature indices in Huang-Huai-Hai River Basin of China during 1961–2014

  • Gang Wang
  • Denghua Yan
  • Xiaoyan He
  • Shaohua Liu
  • Cheng Zhang
  • Ziqiang Xing
  • Guangyuan Kan
  • Tianling Qin
  • Minglei Ren
  • Hui Li
Original Paper

Abstract

Spatial and temporal characteristics of temperature extremes have been investigated in Huang-Huai-Hai (HHH) region based on the daily series of temperature observations from 162 meteorological stations. A total of 11 indices were used to assess the changes of temperature pattern. Linear trend analyses revealed that the daily maximum temperature (TXx) increased at α = 0.05 level with a magnitude of 0.15 °C per decade on the regional scale during the period of 1961–2014. More pronounced warming trend of the daily minimum temperature (TNn) was detected at a rate of 0.49 °C per decade (α = 0.01 level). Consequently, a decreasing trend of the temperature range of TXx and TNn (extreme temperature range) was observed. The frequency of hot days (TXf90) and annual average of warm events (warm spell duration indicator, WSDI) showed significant increasing trends, while that of cold nights (TNf10) and cold events (cold spell duration indicator, CSDI) showed opposite behaviors. Both warm winter (W-W) and hot summer (H-S) series displayed significant increasing trends at α = 0.01 confidence level. The cold winter (C-W) series showed a decreasing trend at α = 0.01 confidence level, while the cool summer (C-S) series showed a nonsignificant decreasing trend that is not passing the 90% confidence level (α = 0.1). Abrupt increments of warm­related extremes (TXx, TXf90, WSDI) have been detected since 1990s, and a steadily decreasing trend of cold related extremes (TNf10, CSDI) was found since 1970s. Ten hot summers out of 11 and nine warm winters out of 10 occurred after 1990s. Altitude has a large impact on spatial pattern of extreme temperature indices, and the urban heat island effect also has an impact on amplitude of variation in extreme temperature. Trend magnitudes are significantly larger at sites with high altitudes for warm­related indices (TXx, TXf90, WSDI), while those involving cold-related indices (TNn, TNf10) are remarkably larger for stations with low altitudes.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Austria 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gang Wang
    • 1
    • 2
  • Denghua Yan
    • 1
  • Xiaoyan He
    • 1
    • 2
  • Shaohua Liu
    • 1
  • Cheng Zhang
    • 1
  • Ziqiang Xing
    • 1
  • Guangyuan Kan
    • 1
    • 2
  • Tianling Qin
    • 1
  • Minglei Ren
    • 1
    • 2
  • Hui Li
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Simulation and Regulation of Water Cycle in River BasinChina Institute of Water Resources and Hydropower ResearchBeijingChina
  2. 2.Research Center on Flood and Drought Disaster Reduction of the Ministry of Water ResourcesBeijingChina

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