Theoretical and Applied Climatology

, Volume 133, Issue 3–4, pp 1051–1059 | Cite as

Vertical structure of precipitating shallow echoes observed from TRMM during Indian summer monsoon

  • Shailendra KumarEmail author
Original Paper


The present study explores the properties of precipitating shallow echoes (PSEs) over the tropical areas (30°S–30°N) during Indian summer monsoon season using attenuated corrected radar reflectivity factor (Ze) measured by the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission satellite. Radar echoes observed in study are less than the freezing height, so they belong to warm precipitation. Radar echoes with at least 0.75 km wide are considered for finding the shallow echoes climatology. Western Ghats and adjoining ocean (Arabian sea) have the highest PSEs followed by Myanmar and Burma coast, whereas the overall west coast of Latin America consists of the lowest PSEs. Tropical oceanic areas contain fewer PSEs compared to coastal areas. Average vertical profiles show nearly similar Ze characteristics which peaks between 1.5 and 2 km altitude with model value 32–34 dBZ. Slope of Ze is higher for intense PSEs as radar reflectivity decreases more rapidly in intense PSEs.


Shallow clouds Freezing height Tropical oceans TRMM PR Western Ghats 

Supplementary material

704_2017_2238_MOESM1_ESM.docx (42 kb)
Supplementary Fig. 1 (DOCX 41 kb)
704_2017_2238_MOESM2_ESM.docx (240 kb)
Supplementary Fig. 2 (DOCX 240 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Austria 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.CAOS, IIScBengaluruIndia

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