Theoretical and Applied Climatology

, Volume 133, Issue 3–4, pp 887–898 | Cite as

The analysis of aridity in Central Serbia from 1949 to 2015

  • Milica G. Radaković
  • Ivana TošićEmail author
  • Nikola Bačević
  • Dragan Mladjan
  • Milivoj B. Gavrilov
  • Slobodan B. Marković
Original Paper


In this study, we apply De Martonne and Pinna combinative indices to analyze the aridity in Central Serbia. Our dataset consists of mean monthly surface air temperature (MMT) and mean monthly precipitation (MMP) for 26 meteorological stations during the period 1949–2015. MMT and MMP are used for calculating monthly, seasonal, and annual aridity indices for period of 66 years. According to the De Martonne climate classification, we determine five, three, and four types of climate on the monthly, seasonal, and annual basis, respectively. During the observed period, winter was extremely humid, spring and autumn were humid, and summer was semi-humid. Humid and semi-humid climate with Mediterranean vegetation are identified by the annual Pinna combinative index. We find that there is no change in aridity trend in Central Serbia for the period 1949–2015. Aridity indices are additionally compared with the North Atlantic Oscillation and El-Niño South Oscillation in order to establish a possible connection with the large-scale processes. Results are further compared with several earlier studies of aridity in Serbia. With this study, the analysis of aridity in whole Serbia has become complete.


Aridity De Martonne index Pinna Index Central Serbia Trends Interpolation 



This research paper was supported by Projects 176020 and 176013 of the Serbian Ministry of Education and Science. The authors are grateful to Dr. Momčilo M. Gavrilov for the support. The authors appreciate the suggestions of reviewers that led to an improvement of the paper.


  1. Agnew C, Anderson E (1992) Water resources in the arid realm. Routledge, p 329Google Scholar
  2. Bačević N, Vukoičić D, Nikolić M, Janc N, Milentijević N, Gavrilov MB (2017) Aridity in Kosovo and Metohija, Serbia. Carpathian Journal of Earth and Environmental Sciences 12:563–570Google Scholar
  3. Bajat B, Blagojević D, Kilibarda M, Luković J, Tošić I (2015) Spatial analysis of the temperature trends in Serbia during the period 1961–2010. Theor Appl Climatol 121:289–301CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Baltas E (2007) Spatial distribution of climatic indices in northern Greece. Meteorol Appl 14:69–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Çiçek İ, Duman N (2015) Seasonal and annual precipitation trends in Turkey. Carpathian Journal of Earth and Environmental Sciences 10:77–84Google Scholar
  6. Croitoru АЕ, Piticar А, Imbroane АМ, Burada DC (2013) Spatiotemporal distribution of aridity indices based on temperature and precipitation in the extra-Carpathian regions of Romania. Theor Appl Climatol 112:597–607CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. De Martonne E (1925) Traité de géographie physique, Vol. I: Notions generales, climat, hydrographie. Geogr Rev 15:336–337CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Deniz A, Toros H, Incecik S (2011) Spatial variations of climate indices in Turkey. Int J Climatol 3:394–403CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Gavrilov MB, Lazić L, Pešić A, Milutinović M, Marković D, Stanković A, Gavrilov MM (2010) Influence of hail suppressionon the hail trend in Serbia. Phys Geogr 31:441–454CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Gavrilov MB, Marković SB, Korać V, Jarad A (2015) The analysis of temperature trends in Vojvodina (Serbia) from 1949 to 2006. Therm Sci 19:339–350CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Gavrilov MB, Tošić I, Marković SB, Unkašević M, Petrović P (2016) The analysis of annual and seasonal temperature trends using the Mann-Kendall test in Vojvodina, Serbia. Időjárás 120:183–198Google Scholar
  12. Hrnjak I, Lukić T, Gavrilov MB, Marković SB, Unkašević M, Tošić I (2014) Aridity in Vojvodina, Serbia. Theor Appl Climatol 115:323–332CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. (accessed 25 May 2016)
  14. Hurrell JW (1995) Decadal trends in the North Atlantic Oscillation regional temperatures and precipitation. Science 269:676–679CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) (2007) Climate change. The physical science basis. In: Solomon S, Qin D, Manning M, Chen Z, Marquis M, Averyt KB, Tignor M, Miller HL (eds) Contribution of working group I to the fourth assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on climate change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge and New YorkGoogle Scholar
  16. Kahya E (2011) The impacts of NAO on the hydrology of the eastern Mediterranean. In hydrological, socioeconomic and ecological impacts of the North Atlantic Oscillation in the Mediterranean region (Eds Vicente-serrano SM, Trigo RM). Advances in global change research 46, springer, p 236Google Scholar
  17. Kendall M (1938) A new measure of rank correlation. Biometrika 30:81–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Mann HB (1945) Non-parametric tests against trend. Econometrica 13:245–259CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Maliva RG, Missimer ThM (2012) Arid lands water evaluation and management. Springer: Heidelberg, Germany, p 1076Google Scholar
  20. Marin L, Birsan MV, Bojariu R, Dumitrescu A, Micu DM, Manea A (2014) An overview of annual climatic changes in Romania: trends in air temperature, precipiutation, sunshine hours, cloud cover, relative humidity nd wind speed duration the 1961–2013 period. Carpathian Journal of Earth and Environmental Sciences 9:253–258Google Scholar
  21. Moral FJ, Paniagua LL, Rebollo FJ, García-Martín A (2016a) Spatial analysis of the annual and seasonal aridity trends in Extremadura, southwestern Spain. Theor Appl Climatol. doi: 10.1007/s00704-016-1939-y
  22. Moral FJ, Rebollo FJ, Paniagua LL, García-Martín A, Honorio F (2016b) Spatial distribution and comparison of aridity indices in Extremadura, southwestern Spain. Theor Appl Climatol 126:801–814CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Peel MC, Finlayson BL, McMahon TA (2007) Updated world map of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification. Hydrol Earth Syst Sci Discuss 4:439–473CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Ropelewski CF, Jones PD (1987) An extension of the Tahiti-Darwin southern Oscillation index. Mon Wea Rev 115:2161–2165CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Tabari H, Marofi S, Aeini A, Talaee PH, Mohammadi K (2011) Trend analysis of reference evapotranspiration in the western half of Iran. Agric For Meteorol 151:128–136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Tabari H, Talaee PH, Nadoushani SM, Willems P, Marchetto A (2014) A survey of temperature and precipitation based aridity indices in Iran. Quat Int 345:158–166CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Thompson RD (1975) The climatology of arid world. University of Reading, UK, Department of Geography Paper No 35:39Google Scholar
  28. Tošić I, Unkašević M (2005) Analysis of precipitation series for Belgrade. Theor Appl Climatol 80:67–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Tošić I, Unkašević M (2014) Analysis of wet and dry periods in Serbia. Int J Climatol 34:1357–1368CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Tošić I, Hrnjak I, Gavrilov MB, Unkašević M, Marković SB, Lukić T (2014) Annual and seasonal variability of precipitation in Vojvodina, Serbia. Theor Appl Climatol 117:331–341CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Tošić I, Unkašević M, Putniković S (2017) Extreme daily precipitation: the case of Serbia in 2014. Theor Appl Climatol 128:785–794CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Thornthwaite CW (1948) An approach toward a rational classification of climate. Geogr Rev 38:55–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) (1979) Map of the world distribution of arid regions: map at scale 1:25,000,000 with explanatory note, MAB technical notes 7. UNESCO, ParisGoogle Scholar
  34. Unkašević M, Jovanović O, Popović T (2001) Urban-suburban/rural vapour pressure and relative humidity differences at fixed hours over the area of Belgrade city. Theor Appl Climatol 68:67–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Unkašević M, Vujović D, Tošić I (2005) Trends in extreme summer temperatures at Belgrade. Theor Appl Climatol 82:199–205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Unkašević M, Tošić I (2011) A statistical analysis of the daily precipitation over Serbia: trends and indices. Theor Appl Climatol 106:69–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Zambakas J (1992) General climatology. National & Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Department of GeologyGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Austria 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Milica G. Radaković
    • 1
  • Ivana Tošić
    • 2
    Email author
  • Nikola Bačević
    • 3
  • Dragan Mladjan
    • 4
  • Milivoj B. Gavrilov
    • 1
  • Slobodan B. Marković
    • 1
  1. 1.Chair of Physical Geography, Faculty of SciencesUniversity of Novi SadNovi SadSerbia
  2. 2.Institute of Meteorology, Faculty of PhysicsUniversity of BelgradeBelgradeSerbia
  3. 3.Department of Geography, Faculty of Natural Sciences and MathematicsUniversity of PrištinaKosovska MitrovicaSerbia
  4. 4.Academy of Criminalistic and Police StudiesZemunSerbia

Personalised recommendations