A kernel density estimation approach of North Indian Ocean tropical cyclone formation and the association with convective available potential energy and equivalent potential temperature

  • Md WahiduzzamanEmail author
  • Alea Yeasmin
Original Paper


Tropical cyclone (TC) is the one of the most devastating weather systems which causes enormous loss of life and property in the coastal regions of North Indian Ocean (NIO) rim countries. TC modelling can help decision-makers and inhabitants in shoreline zones to take necessary planning and actions in advance. To model TC activity, it is essential to know the factors that effect TC activities. The formation of tropical cyclones in the NIO basin is significantly modulated by Convective Available Potential Energy (CAPE) and Equivalent Potential Temperature (EPT). In this paper, a kernel density estimation approach (KDE) has been developed and evaluated to determine the extent of this modulation for the period 1979–2016. The distribution of genesis was defined by the KDE approach and validated by both classical and standard plug-in estimators. Results suggest a strong correlation of TC genesis densities with CAPE in the month of October–November (post-monsoon season) followed by the month of April–May (pre-monsoon season). Findings indicate the potential for predicting TC activities in the NIO well before the TC season.



Authors would like to sincerely thank Dr. Savin Chand (Senior Lecturer, Federation University, Australia); Dr. Stephanie Fielder (Editor, Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics) and two anonymous reviewers for their helpful discussion and constructive review.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Austria, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute for Climate and Application Research (ICAR)Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology (NUIST)NanjingChina
  2. 2.Institute for Marine and Antarctic StudiesUniversity of TasmaniaHobartAustralia
  3. 3.The Satellite Positioning for Atmosphere, Climate and Environment (SPACE) Research CentreRMIT UniversityMelbourneAustralia

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