Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics

, Volume 131, Issue 5, pp 1401–1413 | Cite as

Recent trends of surface air temperatures over Kenya from 1971 to 2010

  • Brian Odhiambo AyugiEmail author
  • Guirong Tan
Original Paper


Global warming impacts leading to climate change is influencing all aspects of life and the ecosystems. Paris agreement capped the increase to a target below 2 °C and further downward trajectory to 1.5 °C above pre-industrial levels. This resolution requires nations to progressively monitor recent past and current temperature trends for accurate projections and adaptations. The present study characterizes recent temporal evolution of surface air temperature over Kenya during 1971–2010. The study utilized Climatic Research Unit reanalysis datasets for monthly minimum, maximum and mean average temperatures. Linear regression is utilized in determining statistical significance of trends, while Sequential Mann–Kendall rank test is employed in evaluating abrupt changes in temperature during the study period. Spatial analysis of mean temperature during the last four decades reveals evidence of rising temperature on annual and seasonal bases. Positive trends dominate western and central parts of Kenya, whereas insignificant positive trends are observed over northern and eastern parts of the study domain. Similarly, linear trends exhibit rising temperatures at the rate of 0.09 °C/decade, with an abrupt change in annual mean being detected in 1992. Overall, significant increase at 99% confidence level is observed during March–May season, while 95% confidence level is witnessed during October–December season.



The first author expresses gratitude to Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology (NUIST) for granting scholarship to pursue a Doctorate Degree and setting up a conducive atmosphere and infrastructure that foster research. Special acknowledgment to all data centers for availing datasets used in the study. National Science and Technology Support Program of China (2015BAC03B02) and the Priority Academic Program Development of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions (PAPD) of China supported the work described of paper. The authors are grateful to two anonymous reviewers for their inputs that greatly improved the quality of manuscript.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The author declares no conflict of interest.


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© Springer-Verlag GmbH Austria, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Key Laboratory of Meteorological Disaster, Collaborative Innovation Center on Forecast and Evaluation of Meteorological Disasters, Ministry of EducationNanjing University of Information Science and TechnologyNanjingChina
  2. 2.College of Atmospheric SciencesNanjing University of Information Science and TechnologyNanjingChina

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