Cortical plasticity as synaptic mechanism for chronic pain
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Adult brain structures such as the hippocampus are highly plastic to learning and gaining new experiences. Recent studies reveal that cortical areas that respond to sensory noxious stimuli (stimuli that cause pain in humans) are also highly plastic, like the learning-related hippocampus. Long-term potentiation (LTP), a key cellular model for learning and memory, is reported in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and insular cortex (IC), two key cortical areas for pain perception. ACC and IC LTP exist in at least two major forms: presynaptically expressed LTP, and postsynaptically expressed LTP (post-LTP). In this short review, I will review, recent progress made in cortical LTPs, and explore potential roles of other forms of LTPs such as synaptic tagging. Their contribution to chronic pain as well as emotional changes caused by injury will be discussed.
KeywordCortical plasticity Chronic pain Anterior cingulate cortex Long-term potentiation Insular cortex
Thank Melissa Lepp for proof-reading and editing. M. Z. was supported by Grants from the Canadian Institute for Health Research (CIHR) project Grants (PJT-148648 and 419286).
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