Journal of Neural Transmission

, Volume 126, Issue 3, pp 253–264 | Cite as

Hand, foot, and spine deformities in parkinsonian disorders

  • Subhashie Wijemanne
  • Joseph JankovicEmail author
Neurology and Preclinical Neurological Studies - Review Article


Hand and foot deformities, known as “striatal deformities”, and other musculoskeletal abnormalities such as dropped head, bent spine, camptocormia, scoliosis and Pisa syndrome, are poorly understood and often misdiagnosed features of Parkinson’s disease and other parkinsonian syndromes. These deformities share some similarities with known rheumatologic conditions and can be wrongly diagnosed as rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, psoriatic arthritis, Dupuytren’s contracture, trigger finger, or other rheumatologic or orthopedic conditions. Neurologists, rheumatologists, and other physicians must be familiar with these deformities to prevent misdiagnosis and unnecessary diagnostic tests, and to recommend appropriate treatment options.


Hand and foot deformity Striatal deformity Parkinson’s disease Atypical parkinsonian syndrome 



We would like to thank Dhanya Vijayakumar, MD for her contributions in preparing the images in this manuscript.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

Authors have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Austria, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of NeurologyUniversity of Texas HealthSan AntonioUSA
  2. 2.Parkinson’s Disease Center and Movement Disorders Clinic, Department of NeurologyBaylor College of MedicineHoustonUSA

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