Botulinum neurotoxin a therapy efficacy and safety for oromandibular dystonia: a meta-analysis
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Oromandibular dystonia (OMD) is a focal dystonia involving the mouth, jaw, and tongue. Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) therapy might be one form of treatment in OMD. Systematic pooling of BoNT studies in OMD remains wanting, as the derived data could provide useful information in regard to efficacy and safety issues. This meta-analysis determined the effects of botulinum neurotoxin type A (BoNT/A) on the reduction of dystonic movement and its safety among patients with OMD. A systematic search of the literature that met the following eligibility criteria were done: (1) patients treated with BoNT/A for OMD, (2) studies of high methodological quality and (3) outcome criteria specified as regard to efficacy. Risk of unresolved dystonia was computed before and after BoNT/A intervention. Random effect size (p < 0.05ɑ) and test of heterogeneity (< I2 50%) were computed as meta-analysis tool using REVMAN ver 5.3 program. Safety data, where available, were systematically reviewed. Nine studies involved 387 cases in total of OMD. The pooled risk ratio is 0.607 with a confidence interval of 0.371–0.783, a z value of 3.85, and a p value of 0.0001. Results indicate that risk of dystonic movements is lower by 39.30% in the treatment group than in the control group. A total of 105/387 patients (27.1%) experienced adverse events most commonly dysphagia. Whilst cited literatures have inherent weaknesses, results show that BoNT/A is efficacious in reducing dystonic movements of patients with OMD. Majority of studies employed electromyography (EMG) guidance in muscle targeting. Given the potential adverse event of dysphagia, one may take a cautious stand while delivering injections to target muscles. These findings are congruent with what has been published in regard to efficacy of BoNT/A in focal dystonia.
KeywordsOromandibular dystonia Lingual dystonia Perioral dystonia Botulinum toxin Botulinum toxin A Therapy
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors of this study have nothing to disclose.
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