Peri-operative prognostic factors for primary skull base chordomas: results from a single-center cohort.

  • Emanuele La CorteEmail author
  • Morgan Broggi
  • Alberto Raggi
  • Silvia Schiavolin
  • Francesco Acerbi
  • Giovanni Danesi
  • Mariangela Farinotti
  • Giovanni Felisati
  • Alberto Maccari
  • Bianca Pollo
  • Marco Saini
  • Claudia Toppo
  • Francesca Valvo
  • Riccardo Ghidoni
  • Maria Grazia Bruzzone
  • Francesco DiMeco
  • Paolo Ferroli
Original Article - Tumor - Other
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Tumor – Other



Skull base chordomas (SBC) are rare malignant tumors and few factors have been found to be reliable markers for clinical decision making and survival prognostication. The aim of the present work was to identify specific prognostic factors potentially useful for the management of SBC patients.


A retrospective review of all the patients diagnosed and treated for SBC at the Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Neurologico “Carlo Besta” between January 1992 and December 2017 has been performed. Survival analysis was performed and a logistic regression model was used. Statistically significant predictors were rated based on their log odds in order to preliminarily build a personalized grading scale—the Peri-Operative Chordoma Scale (POCS).


Fifty-nine primary chordoma patients were included. The average follow-up from the first treatment was 82.6 months (95% CI, 65.5–99.7). POCS was built over PFS and MR contrast enhancement (intense vs mild/no, value 4), preoperative motor deficit (yes vs no, value 3), and the development of any postoperative complications (yes vs no, value 2). POCS ranges between 0 and 9, with higher scores being associated with reduced likelihood of survival and progression-free state.


Our results show that preoperative clinical symptoms (motor deficits), surgical features (extent of tumor resection and surgeon’s experience), development of postoperative complications, and KPS decline represent significant prognostic factors. The degree of MR contrast enhancement significantly correlated to both OS and PFS. We also preliminarily developed the POCS as a prognostic grading scale which may help neurosurgeons in the personalized management of patients undergoing potential adjuvant therapies.


Chordoma Clivus Skull base surgery Skull base Complication Outcome Grading system Endoscopic endonasal approach 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Neurologico “Carlo Besta” research committee (Ref. 2015-034) and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Austria, part of Springer Nature 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Emanuele La Corte
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Morgan Broggi
    • 2
  • Alberto Raggi
    • 3
  • Silvia Schiavolin
    • 3
  • Francesco Acerbi
    • 2
  • Giovanni Danesi
    • 4
  • Mariangela Farinotti
    • 5
  • Giovanni Felisati
    • 6
  • Alberto Maccari
    • 6
  • Bianca Pollo
    • 7
  • Marco Saini
    • 2
  • Claudia Toppo
    • 3
  • Francesca Valvo
    • 8
  • Riccardo Ghidoni
    • 1
    • 9
  • Maria Grazia Bruzzone
    • 10
  • Francesco DiMeco
    • 2
  • Paolo Ferroli
    • 2
  1. 1.Molecular and Translational Medicine, Department of Health SciencesUniversity of MilanMilanItaly
  2. 2.Department of NeurosurgeryFondazione IRCCS Istituto Neurologico “Carlo Besta”MilanItaly
  3. 3.Neurology, Public Health and Disability UnitFondazione IRCCS Istituto Neurologico “Carlo Besta”MilanItaly
  4. 4.Division of Ear, Nose, and Throat, and Skull Base Microsurgery, Ospedali RiunitiBergamoItaly
  5. 5.Unit of NeuroepidemiologyFondazione IRCCS Istituto Neurologico “Carlo Besta”MilanItaly
  6. 6.Otolaryngology Unit, ASST Santi Paolo e Carlo, Department of Health SciencesUniversity of MilanMilanItaly
  7. 7.Neuropathology UnitFondazione IRCCS Istituto Neurologico “Carlo Besta”MilanItaly
  8. 8.National Center of Oncological Hadrontherapy (CNAO)PaviaItaly
  9. 9.Department of Health Sciences, Clinical Biochemistry and Mass Spectrometry LaboratoryUniversity of MilanMilanItaly
  10. 10.Neuroradiology DepartmentFondazione IRCCS Istituto Neurologico “Carlo Besta”MilanItaly

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